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Team Test Study Guide 2nd sem

Team Test Study Guide 2nd sem - US Foreign Policy Early...

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US Foreign Policy: Early Years to 1940’s I. Fukuyama’s Two Directions a. American foreign policy has always been pulled in two directions. i. Realist—defense of national security, defined in relatively narrow terms ii. Expansive sense—rests on the exceptionalism of American institutions, and the messianic belief in their universal applicability b. GW warned the American people to steer clear of entangling alliances i. 1823—Monroe Doctrine meant to separate US from the powers across the Atlantic II. Early Year’s to 1890’s III. Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1909 a. A dramatic, but temporary change b. Presidents after him failed to grasp his concepts IV. Wilson, World War I, & League of Nations a. US entered war in 1917 in order to “make the world safe for democracy” b. After war ended in 1918, Wilson established the League of Nations i. Wilson was unable to persuade the US senate to ratify the treaty of Versailles, so the US did not join the league of nations V. Retreat to isolationism, 1920’s & 1930’s a. After didn’t join the League of Nations b. Pursuing economic games c. 1928—US negotiated the Kellogg-Briand pact which outlawed WAR i. So, when Adolf Hitler came to power, the US citizenry and political leadership did not want to deal with it, nor did they want to confront Japanese aggression in China VI. Appeasement & the U.S.—under FDR a. giving in to Hitler, standing by and watching what was going on i. US was an important accessory to the policy of appeasement going on in Europe, by France and Great Britain b. Neutrality Acts, 1935-37 i. Warned Americans not to travel on ships of countries at war ii. Arms and loans prohibitions 1. impartial arms embargo 2. Prohibited sale of weapons to ANY warring nation, oppressor or victim! 3. allowed Hitler to attack a nation without the fear that US would supply that nation with arms iii. Loans iv. Cash-and-carry 1. designed to keep American merchant ships out of war zones by authorizing the president to require warring nations that wished to buy non-military US products to
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send their own ships to US ports to pick up the goods, and to pay for the goods in cash v. REFLECTED THE CONTRADICTORY DESIRE OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TO REMAIN ECONOMICALLY PART OF THE WORLD AND POLITICALLY OUT OF IT 1. “policy of scuttle and run to the storm cellar” c. Spanish Civil War i. More than any other single event, Spanish Civil War demonstrates the extent that fear and disillusion were guiding the foreign policy ii. Spain’s gov. under assault from fascist rebel movement who was receiving help from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany 1. Soviet Union was helping Spanish government, though Stalin had his own agenda 2. France Britain and US decided to pretend the Italians and Germans were not involved a. Non-intervention committee established in London to permit sale of weapons to either side in Spain i. Germany and Italy joined this commission and pledged neutrality while all the time helping the rebels iii. Some American companies attempted to sell arms to the Spanish
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