Basics of Kinetic Molecular Theory - Chemistry LibreTexts.pdf

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/particles when conditions such as pressure and temperature change? This is addressed via Kinetic Molecule Theory.The Fundamentals of Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)The molecules of a gas are in a state of perpetual motion in which the velocity (that is, the speed and direction) of each molecule iscompletely random and independent of that of the other molecules. This fundamental assumption of the kinetic-molecular model helpsus understand a wide range of commonly-observed phenomena. According to this model, most of the volume occupied by a gas isemptyspace; this is the main feature that distinguishes gases fromcondensedstates of matter (liquids and solids) in which neighboringmolecules are constantly in contact. Gas molecules are in rapid and continuous motion; at ordinary temperatures and pressures theirvelocities are of the order of 0.1-1 km/sec and each molecule experiences approximately 10collisions with other molecules everysecond.The five basic tenets of the kinetic-molecular theory are as follows:1. A gas is composed of molecules that are separated by average distances that are much greater than the sizes of the moleculesthemselves.The volume occupied by the molecules of the gas is negligible compared to the volume of the gas itself2. The molecules of an ideal gas exertno attractive forceson each other, or on the walls of the container.3. The molecules are inconstant random motion, and as material bodies, they obey Newton's laws of motion. This means that themolecules move instraight linesBasics of Kinetic Molecular TheoryTo understand the five fundamentals of Kinetic Molecular Theory.To use Kinetic Molecular Theory to describe the behavior of the macroscopic gas laws.The ideal gas equationdescribeshowgases behave, e.g.:A gas expands when heated at constant pressureThe pressure increases when a gas is compressed at constant temperatureHowever, the ideal gas law (nor any of the constituent gas laws) does not explainwhygases behave this way? What happens to gas.

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Term
Spring
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Tags
Kinetic theory, Kinetic Molecular Theory

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