History Midterm 1 - Sierra Nevada Bering Land Bridge an ancient land bridge roughly 1,000 miles(1,600 km wide(north to south at its greatest extent

History Midterm 1 - Sierra Nevada Bering Land Bridge an...

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Sierra Nevada: Bering Land Bridge: an ancient land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) wide (northto south) at its greatest extent, which connected Asia with North America at various timesduring the Pleistoceneice ages.Alfred L. Kroeber: was an Americancultural anthropologist. roeber and his students didimportant work collecting cultural data on western tribes of Native Americans. Kroeber'sinfluence was so strong that many contemporaries adopted his style of beard andmustache as well as his views as a cultural historian.[citation needed]During his lifetime,he was known as the "Dean of American Anthropologists".Acorns: Acorns were a traditional food of many indigenouspeoples of North America,but served an especially important role for Californian Native Americans, where theranges of several species of oaks overlap, increasing the reliability of the resource. Unlikemany other plant foods, acorns do not need to be eaten or processed right away, but maybe stored for a long time, as done by squirrels. In years that oaks produced many acorns,Native Americans sometimes collected enough acorns to store for two years as insuranceagainst poor acorn production years.Ethnology: is the branch of anthropologythat compares and analyzes the origins,distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structureof the ethnic, racial,and/or nationaldivisions of humanity.Archaeology: is the study of humanactivity in the past, primarily through the recoveryand analysisof the material cultureand environmental data that they have left behind,which includes artifacts, architecture, biofactsand cultural landscapes. J. P. Harrington: an American linguistand ethnologistand a specialist in the nativepeoplesof California. Harrington is noted for the massive volume of his documentaryoutput, most of which has remained unpublished: the shelf space in the Library ofCongressdedicated to his work spans nearly seven hundred feet. Died in his apartmentwith all his notes.Kuksu: a shamanisticreligion in Northern Californiapracticed in different degrees bymany Native Americanpeople before and during contact with the arriving Europeansettlers. The religious belief system was held by several tribes in Central Californiaand
Northern California, from the Sacramento Valleywest to the Pacific Ocean. They havecustom, food, dance and the religious creation stories.Toloache: a wide spread religious similar to Kuksu. This is a datura-based religion,apparently of considerable time depth, and common to the peoples of south-central andsouthern California. Datura, or jimsonweed, is a plant with dramatic narcotic propertiesand a`mong many societies of pre-contact California it was used by shamans to facilitatethe acquisition of power from supernatural sources which was then used for healing,divining, and diagnosing, among other things. Toloache was also used on an individualbasis to assure luck in gambling, to cure certain illnesses, and to attain personal visions.

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