Cardiovascular System.html - Cardiovascular System Anatomy...

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 15 pages.

Cardiovascular SystemAnatomy & Physiology / Nusing AssessmentCardiovascular SystemAnatomy & PhysiologyBe sure to review and know the key terms slide 2 of the power point for this lesson. You will beseeing/hearing them over and over and need to be familiar with them.Cardiac StructuresThis is just a short review of the A&P of the heart...if you need further review, please read youranatomy and/or Lewis textsThe heart is a 4 chambered hollow muscular organ approximately the size of a fist.Located in the center of the thoraxSize is influenced by age, gender, body weight, physical exercise, & heart diseaseThe heart pumps blood to the tissues, supplying them with oxygen and other nutrientsThe wall of the heart has 3 layers:Endocardium- inner layer - consists ofendothelial tissue and lines the inside of theheart and valvesMyocardium- middle layer - made up ofmuscle fibers, responsible for pumping actionEpicardium- outer layer - fibrous exterior layerof the heartPericardium– sac that covers the heartVisceral layer– inside layerParietal layer– outer layerPericardial fluidlubricates the space between the layers and prevents friction as the heart contracts
The ventricles and atrium are separated by the septum2 ventricles- lower chambers; are larger and wallsthicker than atria2 atria– upper chambersCardiac ValvesThe heart contains 4 valvesTheir job is to allow forward flow of blood through theheart and prevent backward flowBe sure to know where each valve is locatedThere are 2 atrioventricular valvesTricuspid valve is between the right atarium and rightventricle - prevents backflow from the right ventricle intothe right atriumMitral valve is between the left atrium and left ventricle -prevents backflow from the left ventricle into the leftatriumThere are 2 semilunar valvesPulmonic is between the right ventricle and thepulmonary artery - prevents backflow from thepulmonary artery to the right ventricleAortic is between the left ventricle and the aorta - prevents backflow from the aorta to the rightventricle
Blood FlowThe right and left sides of the heart work togetherRight Side:Blood enters theheart through twolarge veins, theinferior and superiorvena cava, emptyingoxygen-poor bloodfrom the body intothe right atrium.Left Side:The pulmonary veinempties oxygen-richblood, from thelungs into the leftatrium.Atrial contraction:Right Atrium:Blood flows fromtheright atrium into the right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve.When the ventricles are full, the tricuspid valve shuts.This prevents blood from flowing backward into the atria while the ventricles contract.Left Atrium:Blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle through the open mitral valve.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 15 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
right ventricle, left ventricle, pulmonary artery, right atrium

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture