{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Downing2 - File"Downing2 I To Review Downing's three...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
File: “Downing2” I. To Review: Downing’s three central arguments are these: A. Late medieval Europe had numerous political characteristics that distinguished it from other major world civilizations 1. Representative assemblies in particular constituted a basis for liberal democracy, and thereby provided Europe with a predisposition toward democratic political institutions. 2. This he describes in Chapter 2 B. Military modernization, and especially the “military revolution” of the 16 th and 17 th centuries, led to the strengthening of monarchal power in countries relying on domestic resources to finance modern armies. 1. In these countries, the monarchs did away with medieval constitutionalism and built expansive autocracies – bureaucratic-military absolutism – and thereby overcoming the democratic predispositions of medieval constitutionalism. 2. This he describes in Chapter 3. 3. In countries that avoided the military revolution, or found alternate methods of financing war than domestic resource mobilization, military modernization did not destroy constitutional government, and a liberal political outcome, though not assured, was at least more likely. a) This he also briefly discusses in Chapter 3. II. Downing then described in general what happened as the pressures of wars, and especially the need to finance the wars, let the monarchs to limit, constrain, and eventually destroy the institutions and rights stemming from medieval constitutionalism. A. But there were some factors that limited the impact of war and the need to finance it. B. These factors were the following: 1. Foreign resource mobilization: a) Is the war conducted on some other country’s territory. b) If so, then resources can be extracted from that country, and do not need to be extracted from the home country. c) This is what Sweden did in Germany during its wars in northern Europe. 2. Alliances: a) Military alliances with foreign powers enable the country to reduce the amounts of domestic resources that need to be mobilized. b) In its long wars with Spain, the Dutch Republic (the Netherlands) allied itself with England and France.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
3. An advanced economy and commercial wealth: a) Foreign sources of wealth, such as may be derived from colonies (Spain) or lucrative commercial transactions (the Dutch Republic), may provide a country with far greater levels of wealth than those of its enemies. b) Hence, the need for domestic resource mobilization is much smaller. 4. Geography and natural topographical features: a) Island nations and ones bounded by rivers, mountains, marshlands have natural barriers to invading armies, and allow a small, antiquated army to fight off a larger and more modern one. b) An offensive victory by the nation may be impossible, but a stalemate may constitute a victory.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern