test one study guide - answers

test one study guide - answers - Chapter One Psychology o...

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Chapter One: - Psychology: o the scientific study of behavior and mental processes - Hindsight bias o The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it. - Psychodynamic o How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts - Behaviorist o How we encode, process, store and retrieve information - Biological o How genetics affect psychology - Social-cultural o How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures - Clinical o Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders - Developmental o Our changing abilities from womb to tomb - Biopsychoscoial o An integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis - Theory o An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations - Hypothesis o A testable prediction, often implied by a theory Different methods include: descriptive, correlation, and experimental methods (page 39) - Descriptive o Uses the case study, the survey and naturalistic observation Case study – an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles The survey – a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
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Errors include: the wording of the question, and random sampling. Naturalistic observation – observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation - Correlation o A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. Positive correlation – two sets of scores, such as height and weight, tend to rise or fall together Negative correlation – two things relate inversely (one set goes up as the other goes down) o Uses scatterplots, illusory correlation, and perceiving order in random events Scatterplots – a graphed cluster of dots each witch represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. Illusory correlation – the perception of a relationship where none exists - Experimentation o Experiment – a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. o
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test one study guide - answers - Chapter One Psychology o...

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