study guide answers - test two

study guide answers - test two - Chapter 5 Sensation –...

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Chapter 5 - Sensation – the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment - Transduction – conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret - Adaptation – diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation - Detection research – assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations. Motivation, and level of fatigue - Absolute threshold – the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor 50 percent of the time - Subliminal messages can be perceived as long as the intensity of stimulus increases; NO subliminal persuasion doesn’t work - Backmasking – the image or word is quickly flashed, the replaced by a masking stimulus that interrupts the brain’s processing before conscious perception. - Difference thresholds – the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. - Weber’s law – the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage - Electromagnetic radiation – what our brain perceives as color - Visible light – - Wavelength and amplitude - the greater the amplitude, the brighter the color; the smaller the amplitude, the duller the color - Pupil – the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters - Iris – a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening - Lens – the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina - Retina – the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
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- Cornea – protects the eye - Rods – retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond - Cones – retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations - Fovea – the central focal point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster - What are the major visual areas in the brain? - Young – Helmholtz tricromatic theory - the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors, one most sensitive to ret, one to green, one to blue, which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color - Opponent-process theory – the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision. I.e. some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green - Audition – the sense of act of hearing - The greater the amplitude, the louder the sound, the smaller the amplitude the
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study guide answers - test two - Chapter 5 Sensation –...

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