FisPartFCUL_slides01.pdf - Particle Physics 2016 Mestrado...

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12016Mestrado em Física,Faculdade de Ciências daUniversidade de LisboaProf. José Maneiraborrowing heavily from slides ofProf. Mark Thomson,University of CambridgeSlides 01 : IntroductionParticle Physics
Outline1. Units2. Revision of basic concepts of Particle Physics3. Accelerators4. Interaction of particles with matter. Detectors5. Collider experiments2
1. Units
Prof. M.A. ThomsonMichaelmas 20114Preliminaries: Natural UnitsS.I. UNITS:kg m sare a natural choice for “everyday” objectse.g.M(Prescott) ~ 250 kgnot very natural in particle physicsinstead useNatural Unitsbased on the language of particle physicsFrom Quantum Mechanics -theunit of action:From relativity -the speed of light:cFrom Particle Physics - unit of energy:GeV(1 GeV ~ proton rest mass energy)̣Units become (i.e. with the correct dimensions):EnergyMomentumMassTimeLengthAreaEnergyMomentumMassTimeLengthAreaNow all quantities expressed in powers ofGeṾSimplify algebra by setting:To convert back to S.I. units,need to restore missing factorsofand
Prof. M.A. ThomsonMichaelmas 20115• Electron chargedefined by Force equation:In Heaviside-Lorentz units setandPreliminaries: Heaviside-Lorentz UnitsSinceUnless otherwise stated, Natural Units are used throughout thesehandouts,,,etc.NOW: electric chargehas dimensions(vacuum permittivity)(vacuum permeability)
2. Revision of basic concepts of ParticlePhysics
Prof. M.A. ThomsonMichaelmas 20117Review of The Standard ModelParticle Physicsis the study of:̣MATTER: the fundamental constituents of the universe - the elementary particleṣFORCE:the fundamental forces of nature, i.e. the interactionsbetween the elementary particlesTry to categorise the PARTICLES and FORCES in as simple and fundamentalmanner possible. Current understanding embodied in theSTANDARD MODEL:Forces between particles due to exchange of particlesConsistent withallcurrent experimental data !But it is just a “model” with many unpredicted parameters, e.g. particle masses.As such it is not the “ultimate theory” (if such a thing exists), thereare many mysteries.
Prof. M.A. ThomsonMichaelmas 20118Matter in the Standard ModeḷIn the Standard Model the fundamental “matter” is described bypoint-likespin-1/2fermionsLEPTONSQUARKSqm/GeVqm/GeVFirstGeneratione–10.0005d–1/30.3ν100u+2/30.3Second

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Particle Physics, Electron, Quark, Weak interaction, Prof M A Thomson

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