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exam 2 guide

exam 2 guide - Chapter 4 Be able to identify key elements...

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Chapter 4 Be able to identify key elements defining motivation o Motivation- psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior. o Motive- o Incentive- Be able to identify from examples the theories of motivation- know how they can be applied in situations and their components/definitions: o Content theories- Explains what motivates people o Process theories- Explains how peoples’ motivation is activated o Know the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Know the order and importance. (low to high). As each need is substantially satisfied, next need becomes dominant. Low order Physiological- physical needs Safety- be safe High order Social- socially accepted Esteem- self esteem Self actualization- The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. o Know ERG theory Three groups of core needs Existence- provision of basic material requirements Relatedness- desire for relationships Growth- desire for personal development More than one need can be operative at one time If higher level need cannot be fulfilled, desire to satisfy a lower level need increases o Be able to identify theory X and Y assumptions from examples. Theory X- Assumes employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform. Theory Y- Assumes employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal. o Know two-factor theory and significance of hygiene factors Motivators-job characteristics associated with job satisfaction Personal growth and achievement Hygiene factors- job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction. Wages, hours, working conditions When satisfied, hygiene factors satisfied and therefore focus is on motivators. o Know and be able to apply McClelland’s theory of needs Need for achievement- the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
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Need for affiliation- the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Need for power- The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise All of these needs are equal, in a triangle. o Know the Cognitive evaluation theory Allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding trends to decrease the overall level of motivation Extrinsic-things like pay Intrinsic- rewarding to self o Know the Goal setting theory- The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Self efficacy- individual’s believe that he or she is capable of performing a task. Goals that are
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exam 2 guide - Chapter 4 Be able to identify key elements...

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