SG Unit III Day 3

SG Unit III Day 3 - 1 Keesha Fausto Study Guide: Unit III...

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1 Keesha Fausto Study Guide: Unit III (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Day 3 – Eukaryote Phylogeny Read: Campbell, Chapter 6, pp. 98-101 1. a. List four features shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Chromosomes, Cytosol, Plasma membrane, ribosomes. b. Note how prokaryote and eukaryote cell differ in size (review Fig. 6.2). Most plant and animal cells range from 10ul and 100ul. Most bacteria are from 1-10ul. c. Explain how the presence of internal membranes is a key distinction between prokaryote and eukaryote cells. Note what these internal membranes accomplish for eukaryotes. Eukaryotic cells have real nucleuses with a nucleolus envelope, while prokaryotic cells have a nucleoid but no membrane that separates this region from the rest. d. Sketch simplified versions of the animal and plant cells in Fig. 6.9, including the following: endo- membrane system (endoplastic reticulum, nuclear membrane, golgi apparatus), membrane-enclosed organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts), ribosomes, chromatin (DNA supported by histones). Read: Campbell, Chapter 26, pp. 549-562 2. Explain, briefly, what protists are, and why they are no longer considered a single classified group. Protists are unicellular eukaryotes. Some are more closely related to plants, fungi, or animals more than they are related to other protists. 3. Explain how secondary endosymbiosis accounts for some of the great diversity among protists. Reproduce a simplified version of Fig. 28.3, omitting chlorarchniophytes. This a phylogeny, not of the organisms themselves, whose names you will be learning shortly, but of their plastids. What evidence supports this view, and what is always the ultimate source of the photosynthetic plastid? Endosymbiosis is a process in which certain unicellular organisms engulfed other cells, which eventually became organelles in the host cell. E.g., the acquiring of Mitochondria in Eukaryotic cells through the engulfing of alpha proteobacteria.
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2 Studies of plastid bearing eukaryotes suggest that all plastids evolved from a gram-negative cyanobacterium that went through Endosymbiosis with an ancestral heterotrophic eukaryote. That eukaryote diversified into red and green algae, which were then engulfed by other eukaryotes. 4. Fig. 28.4 is the next phylogeny that you will learn, but (good news!) in considerably simplified form. Reproduce the following in your notes by hand (no copy/paste). 5. a. Describe the nuclei, flagella, and reduced mitochondria of diplomonads. (diplo = two, monad = unit) They have two equal sized nuclei and multiple flagella. Their mitochondria do not have DNA, electron transport chains, or enzymes normally needed for the citric acid cycle.
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Dawley during the Fall '07 term at Ursinus.

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SG Unit III Day 3 - 1 Keesha Fausto Study Guide: Unit III...

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