Unit III (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Day 3 – Eukaryote Phylogeny
Campbell, Chapter 6, pp.
List four features shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromosomes, Cytosol, Plasma membrane, ribosomes.
Note how prokaryote and eukaryote cell differ in size (review Fig. 6.2).
Most plant and animal cells range from 10ul and 100ul.
Most bacteria are from 1-10ul.
Explain how the presence of internal membranes is a key distinction between prokaryote and
Note what these internal membranes accomplish for eukaryotes.
Eukaryotic cells have real nucleuses with a nucleolus envelope, while prokaryotic cells have a
nucleoid but no membrane that separates this region from the rest.
Sketch simplified versions of the animal and plant cells in Fig. 6.9, including the following: endo-
membrane system (endoplastic reticulum, nuclear membrane, golgi apparatus), membrane-enclosed
organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts), ribosomes, chromatin (DNA supported by histones).
Read: Campbell, Chapter 26, pp. 549-562
Explain, briefly, what protists are, and why they are no longer considered a single classified group.
Protists are unicellular eukaryotes.
Some are more closely related to plants, fungi, or animals
more than they are related to other protists.
Explain how secondary endosymbiosis accounts for some of the great diversity among protists.
Reproduce a simplified version of Fig. 28.3, omitting chlorarchniophytes.
This a phylogeny, not of the
organisms themselves, whose names you will be learning shortly, but of their plastids.
supports this view, and what is always the ultimate source of the photosynthetic plastid?
Endosymbiosis is a process in which certain unicellular organisms engulfed other cells, which
eventually became organelles in the host cell.
E.g., the acquiring of Mitochondria in Eukaryotic
cells through the engulfing of alpha proteobacteria.