SG_Unit_I_Day_6

SG_Unit_I_Day_6 - 1 Keesha Fausto Study Guide Unit...

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1 Keesha Fausto Study Guide: Unit I (Ecology) Day 6 – Tadpole Communities Read: Skelly, D. K. 1997. Tadpole communities. Amer. Sci. 85:36-45. 1. The graph on the right shows the distribu- tion of tadpole species over a gradient of habitat types, from temporary to permanent. List the questions that the graph raised for the author of this article. How do aquatic species manage to survive when the ponds dry up? Why can’t these species live in more temporary ponds? Why can’t they live in ponds that never dry up? Why do some species coexist while others are segregated in their distributions? 2. Explain the importance of development time to tadpoles, and why development time alone cannot explain how tadpole communities are structured. What else might be involved? They must reach a critical stage, metamorphose, before their pond dries up. Species with long larval periods are unable to breed in ponds with short hydro periods, and species with long development times tend to breed in permanent habitats. Tadpole communities are structured due to the exclusion of many species from permanent ponds. 3. Summarize the competition/predation model of community structure in tadpoles. In permanent ponds, tadpole density is reduced as a result of predators. The tadpoles that succeed in permanent habitats are the ones that would survive from predators, and therefore, competitive ability would be less important. The competition-predation gradient suggests that good competitors are bad at surviving predators. 4. List the species composition of four representative aquatic habitats, from temporary to permanent, noting the increase in the diversity and efficiency of predator species. (You needn't memorize these lists.) Note the names and habitat use of the two species that Skelly experimented on. The most temporary pond is where most aquatic species are able to occupy only a limited segment of the gradient. Bullfrog tadpoles are associated with permanent habitats and never found in temporary ponds. Chorus frog tadpoles are common in temporary waters but rare in permanent habitats.
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