History Study Guide
one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. Spread Christianity throughout the Near East
ruled as Roman emperor from 284-305 C.E. Restored the majesty and
prestige of emperor (as title). Divided the empire in half, entrusting western part to
Maximum while retaining the wealthier, eastern half. Reformed tax system, adjusting tax
assessments and appointing a small army of tax collectors. Moved capital to present-day
Turkey. Established tetrarchy as system of rule: each half of empire ruled by an emperor
and a lieutenant emperor (thus 4 rulers).
ruled from 312-324 as Augustus of western half of empire, but reunited
the empire until his death in 337. Began as a pagan ruler, but after Battle of Milvian
Bridge in 312, he converted to Christianity. Issued Edict of Milan in 313 allowing
freedom of religion in empire. Built new capital at Constantinople in 324, shifting the
“weight” of empire to the east.
Council of Nicea –
religious council convened and overseen by Constantine in 325,
condemned Arian Christianity. Began process of integrating the leadership of the church
with the leadership of Roman state (especially in the east).
St. Ambrose –
archbishop of Milan, aristocratic, held considerable power in empire
(forced emperor to do penance for civilian massacres). Wrote
On the Duties of Ministers
about ethics: the beginning and end of human conduct should be reverence for God, all
humans have God’s grace, but some have more grace than others.
St. Jerome –
translated the Bible from Hebrew into Greek and Latin (known as
), which remained standard Bible into the 16
century. Influential on how Bible
should be interpreted, responsible for Western interpretations (symbolically,
allegorically, historically, and literally).
classical learning had nothing to do with religious salvation, religion and
education should work together
St. Augustine of Hippo –
one of the most influential Christian theologians of all time, St.
Augustine describe his conversion in his autobiographical
new aspects of Christian theology in
On the City of God
. Influenced by neo-Platonism
(all goodness radiates out from one central goodness). Becomes bishop of Hippo in 395.
City of God
: govt. exists to combat sinful nature of man.
On Christian Doctrine
from 396-427 stated that all secular studies (science, math, philosophy) should be
undertaken, but only if they are applied to Christianity.
Theodosius I –
ruled from 378-395. Born in Spain, rose up ranks in Roman military.
Established short-term peace w/ Visigoths. Declared Catholic Christianity only
acceptable form of Christianity (another attempt to separate Romans from Barbarians).
He was the last Roman emperor to rule both East and West.