Test2StudyGuide - Agricultural Revolution - The sweeping...

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Agricultural Revolution - The sweeping advancement of agricultural production that took place between 700 and 1300. Technological innovations, combined with an improved climate, new crop rotation systems, and increased investment in tools, livestock, and mills, increased the productivity of European agriculture dramatically. Manorialism - the organizing principle of rural economy and society widely practiced in Europe during the middle ages. Peasants worked a large common land owned by a land lord, who took a hefty amount of the production. Peasants were known as serfs. Commercial Revolution - During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, great developments in long-distance commerce took place in the burgeoning cities of northern Italy. A series of naval victories for Italian forces gave their cities control over the carrying trade between Constantinople, Alexandria, and the West. The growing prosperity of western European nobles and churchmen created an expanding market for eastern luxury goods. The 12 th century saw a rise in an organized system of fairs where goods from all across Europe were sold. Europe became an increasingly unified economy. Communes- Guilds - Professional organizations in commercial towns that regulated the business conditions and privelages of those practicing a particular craft. First Crusade - Spurred by Pope Urban II summons to retake Jerusalem, was a massive movement of more than 100,000 people in 1095. Was a means to achieve 4 goals. One was to bring the Orthodox church back into communion with the papacy. Two was to embarrass Urban’s greatest enemy, the German emperor Henry IV. Henry and the papacy had been at war for more than 20 years. Fourth Crusade - (1202-1204) Summoned by Pope Innocent III, was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem though an invasion through Egypt. Instead, in April 1204, the Crusaders of the West invaded and conquered the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. This is seen as one of the final acts in the Greath Schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. It has often been described as the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history. King William I “The Conqueror”- The Duke of Normandy, also known as William the Bastard, he invaded England in 1065 with an army of Normans to take over the last Anglo-Saxon king. He maintained many Anglo-Saxon institutions there but dispossessed the old aristocracy. King Henry II of England - King of England from 1154-1189. Started the exchequer in England, which is a tax collection and management service. Also brought about judicial innovations with traveling royal judges, local juries, standardized writs to effectively govern. Began the advent of common law. King John of England
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course HIST 015 taught by Professor Field during the Spring '08 term at Vermont.

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Test2StudyGuide - Agricultural Revolution - The sweeping...

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