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Spring Notes - The Caliphate 1/18/2007 11:00:00 AM...

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The Caliphate 18/01/2007 10:00:00 Muhammads death (632) and the Aftermath need for a successor Caliph- the succession from leader. Majority of the sunni sources believe that Muhammad designated anyone to  succeed him after he died. Shiites believe that he did. This was an issue that  had to be resolved for community stability.  o no distinction between religious and political leader o Abu Bakr was selected forst caliph 632-634 by the “community”—this  was a general consensus.  o Abu bakr was the father of muhammad’s favorite wife and was a  member fo the Quraysh tribe. The majority of the community believed  that all further leaders should be affiliated with the tribe of Quraysh. o A’isha: Muhammad’s favorite wife, Abu Bakr’s daughter. Precedents Set by the election of Abu Bakr o There has to be a Caliph o A preference for Quraysh o The leader (Caliph) had to be chosen by the community. This is the most important difference between Sunni and Shiite  Islam.  Sunna- Customs/Traditions. 
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Theory of the Caliphate Bay’a=contract between the ruler and the ruled (caliph and subject) Caliph-was supposed to carryon the sunna of the prophet. later in time, the  roles/power of the caliph became more prominent. Became the leader of the  imperial armies, commander of the faithful, political leader and religious  leader. Commander of the Faithful- by 7 th  century muslim empires became conquest  states. primary targets- Byzantine empire, sassanian empire and the territories of  north Africa. Commander of the Faithful very important title. Umar- Second Caliph 634-644 Conquest state Emeregence fo Centralized military state o Conquests BYZANTINE-  Syria 641 Egypt 643 N. Africa 643 SASANIAN Ctesiphon- 641
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Khurasan- 654 Umar had the greatest impact on islam Standardized Friday prayer service o Created a sense of community in Muslim communities Compared to a sports game- chanting the same thing, doing the  same thing=sense of unity Hijri calendar Collection of the Qur’an Pilgrimage to Mecca was made obligatory Made faith instead of tribal affiliation reign in social status. your conversion to  islam became a much more important source of authority. Problems with these transitions (Later on): o Many people were still unhappy with the emphasis put on the Islamic  character (mostly the people of quryash) Why? because before the rise  of Islam they were the leaders of the community. then the communities  converted to islam and they lost all their prominence. They felt that  they had made huge contributions to early islam and that this was 
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course HIST 046 taught by Professor Ergene during the Spring '07 term at Vermont.

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Spring Notes - The Caliphate 1/18/2007 11:00:00 AM...

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