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Unformatted text preview: Karlwitz A treaty in 1699 that gave the Austrians control of Hungary, and forced the Ottomans to protect Christians within their empire. It symbolized and forshadowed the continuing Ottoman decline. Pogroms raids and forced emigrations of Jews from Russia and Eastern Europe during the 19 th century. The Zionist movement arose out of a desire to escape such pogroms....
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- Spring '07