ESS 106 Lecture 10 - Volcano of the Day Mount Etna Sicily...

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Volcano of the Day Mount Etna Sicily, Italy Stratovolcano -largest volcano in Italy -one of the most active volcanoes in the world -summit = 10,925 ft. -Explosive eruptions -Effusive lavas
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Volcano of the Day Mount Etna Sicily, Italy -One of the longest documented eruption histories of any volcano on earth -1500 years of HISTORICAL eruptions -300,000 year history in total -volcanic ash contributes to soil fertility -vineyards, orchards, agriculture
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Etna in Greek Mythology
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Typhon Monster in Greek Mythology Huge, winged “hundreds of dragon heads” Body of a snake Son of Gaia and Tartarus Father of – Cerberus, Sphinx, Hydra, Chimera, Nemean Lion
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Zeus throws him down! Typhon was out of control, destroying everything he could find. All the gods were afraid and fled, except Zeus Zeus pinned him with a lightning bolt. Stuffed him underneath mount Etna Etna’s eruptions are from Typhon scratching and blowing fire, trying to get out.
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Photo By Boris Behncke, April 14, 2013
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What happens after fragmentation? What is in the eruption column? What controls how high an eruption column will rise? The Fall out: ash and pyroclastic flows Living with Volcanoes
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Volcanic Hazards Lava flows Ash fall Acid Rain Pyroclastic Flows Landslides (debris avalanche) Lahar
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Parts of the Eruption Column Gas thrust region Convective ascent region Umbrella region
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Eruption Column: General Overview Mixture erupted out of conduit/vent/crater vertically or laterally (sub-vertically) at velocities up to several hundred m/s. Initially, density of mixture is greater than surrounding atmosphere. As material is thrust upward, incorporates (mixes with) cooler, surrounding air into column. Atmosphere heats up and the density of mixture becomes lower than surrounding atmosphere. Eventually, mixture has same density as surrounding atmosphere/air. Friction at outer boundaries (between air and column causes some gravitational fallout of particles).
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Eruption Plume Dynamics Gas thrust (or jet phase) region Motion dominated by initial vertical momentum Particles propelled upwards like a shot from a gun muzzle velocity at exit of vent can be around 100-600 m/s (220-1300 miles/ hour)
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  • Spring '09
  • Bergantz
  • Volcanoes, Volcanology, Volcano, Pyroclastic flow, ash fall, eruption column, Eruption Plume Dynamics

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