20459154-Anatomy-and-Physiology-i-the-Human-Body-Specialized-Cells-Are.doc

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGYI. THE HUMAN BODYSpecialized cells are structurally and functionally integrated to form an organism.Anatomy: the study of the structure of the living organism.Physiology: the study of the function of the living organism-Development of the electron microscope greatly enhanced the study of molecular biology.-Water, the fluid medium of the body, accounts for about 65% of the body weight. Three fourths is within the cells(intracellular fluid) and most of the remainder is between cells(interstitial fluid). The smallest portion is in the vascular system.-Homeostasis refers to maintaining the “steady state conditions of the body by coordinated physiological processes. Among the homeostatic control mechanisms are those maintaining normal concentrations of blood constituents, body temperature, volume and pH of the body fluids, blood pressure and heart rate.All homeostatic control mechanisms operate by negative feedback.Coordination of the body is primarily under nervous and hormonal control.II. ORGANIZATION OF THE BODYFour basic reference systems of organization are described:-Direction: All descriptions of location or position assume the body to be erect and facing forward, with the arms at the sides and the palms anterior. This is the so called anatomic position. Directions include superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, cephalad, medial, lateral, proximal and distal. Definitions of parietal and visceral are important also.-Planes: The body is discussed with respect to planes passing through it; these are the Midsagittal, Sagittal, Horizontal and Frontal planes.-Cavities: Ventral – subdivided into thoracic (further divided into pleural and pericardial) and the abdominopelvic cavities.Dorsal – divided into the cranial and spinal cavities. The dorsal cavities contain structures of the nervous system.-Structural Units:1.The cell: All living matter is composed of cells and cell products. The cell carries out all activities essential for maintaining life.2.Tissue: Composed of cells and intercellular substance. Cells of a tissue are similar in appearance, function andembryronic in origin. The four types of tissues are epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.3.Organs: a group of tissues serving a common function brought together to form a single structure, such as the heart and lungs.4.System: Cells, tissues, organs combine to form a system. The body contains the following major systems; skin,skeletal, articular, muscular, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, endocrine and reproductive.III. BASIC CHEMISTRY AND THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF LIVING MATTERAll matter is composed of elements, each of which is a collection of atoms, an atom representing the smallest particle that retains the element’s properties.Combination of two or more atoms of different elements form compounds. The smallest unit retaining the propertiesof a compound is a molecule.

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