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The Nervous System
Dual innervation in the autonomic nervous systemAnatomy of the autonomic nervous systemAutonomic neurotransmitters and receptorsAutonomic neuroeffector junctionsRegulation of autonomic function11.1 The Autonomic Nervous System
Both divisions of the autonomic nervous system innervatemost effector organsPrimary function: regulate organs to maintain homeostasisParasympathetic and sympathetic activities tend to beantagonisticParasympathetic nervous system: restSympathetic nervous system: fight-or-flight responseDual Innervation of the Autonomic NervousSystem
Figure 11.1Dual innervation in the autonomic nervous system.PonsMedullaCervicalC1T1L1S1Co1CoccygealSacralLumbarThoracicCollateralganglionSympathetic chainGenitaliaBladderRectumSmallintestineLargeintestineKidneyLiverPancreasSpleenStomachHeartLungsParasympatheticganglionCranial nerve VIICranial nerve IXCranial nerve XVagus nerve(cranial nerve X)Cranialnerve IIILacrimaland salivaryglandsEyeSympatheticParasympatheticC2C3C4C5C6C7C8T2T3T4T5T6T7T8T9T10T11T12L2L3L4L5S2S3S4S5CollateralganglionS2S3S4
Two types of neurons from CNS to effector organs:Preganglionic neuronsPostganglionic neuronsAutonomic gangliaCommunication from preganglionic to postganglionic neuronIntrinsic neuronsAnatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System
Effector organsCardiac muscleSmooth muscleGlandsAdipose tissueAnatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System
Figure 11.2Anatomy of autonomic pathways.CNSPNSPreganglionicneuronAutonomicganglionPostganglionicneuronEffector organs:Cardiac muscleSmooth muscleGlandsAdipose tissue
Preganglionic neurons originate in the thoracolumbarspinal cordLateral hornIntermediolateral cell columnGeneral anatomyShort preganglionic neurons to sympathetic chainLong postganglionic neurons from sympathetic chain toeffector organsGanglia linked together in sympathetic chainAnatomy of the Sympathetic NervousSystem
Exception to general anatomyCollateral ganglia: outside chainAdrenal medullaModified sympathetic postganglionic cells (chromaffin cells)Releases three types of catecholamines:80% epinephrine20% norepinephrineSmall amount of dopamineAnatomy of the Sympathetic NervousSystem
Figure 11.3Anatomical pathways of preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the sympatheticnervous system.LateralhornPreganglionicneuronSympathetic chainPostganglionic neuronEffector organChromaffin cellAdrenal medullaCollateral ganglionThoracic andlumbarspinal cordEffector organEffector organEffector organ
Sympathetic pathways to and from the sympatheticchainPreganglionicExits via the ventral root of the spinal cord and enters the spinalnerveAxons leave the spinal nerve as white ramus and entersympathetic gangliaCommunicate in ganglia with postganglionic neuronsAnatomy of the Sympathetic NervousSystem
Sympathetic pathways to and from the sympatheticchain

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Term
Fall
Professor
Walker
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