psyc101studyguide1

psyc101studyguide1 - STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 Prologue/Ch 1...

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STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 Prologue/Ch 1 Hindsight bias? Hindsight bias is the tendency for humans to think they knew something they are told before they were told it, even though they didn’t know it. What is a theory? A theory is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. What is a hypothesis? A hypothesis is a testable predictions that is often implied by a theory. Cause and effect In experiments we manipulate something (cause) to make something else happen (effect) Be able to identify independent and dependent variables in examples Be able to identify experimental and control groups in examples What are operational definitions and why are they necessary? Operational definitions are how variables in experiments are defined as stated in the procedure. What are confounding variables? Confounding variables are things that seem effective but really aren’t. What is the purpose of random assignment? Assigning experiment participants to control and experimental positions by chance to minimize preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups. What is the placebo effect? Experimental results caused by expectations alone.
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What is a double-blind design and what confounding variables does it control? The double-blind test makes both the researchers and the study participants ignorant to who is getting the real treatment and who isn’t. What does statistical significance mean? It means that there is statistical evidence to support a claim. Is statistical significance the same as practical significance? No Ch 2 What is biopsychology? Biopsychology is concerned with the links between biology and how it effects our behavior. What are neurons? A nerve cell. Neurons make up our nervous system. Know the different parts of a neuron and what they do Cell Body- The cell’s life support center Dendrites- Bushy branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. Axon- Passes messages from one neuron to the next, neuron connectors. Myelin Sheath- Fatty tissue encasing many fibers of many neurons. It increases the speed that messages are carried across neurons. Know general functions of acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and endorphins. Acetylcholine- Enables muscle action, learning, and memory. Norepinephrine- Helps control alertness and arousal Serotonin- Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. Dopamine- Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. GABA- Major inhibitory neurotransmitter.
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Glutamate- A major excitatory neurotransmitter, involved in memory. Endorphins- natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure. What is the central nervous system?
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Hebert during the Spring '07 term at Tulane.

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psyc101studyguide1 - STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 Prologue/Ch 1...

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