Geo Chap 1 & 2

Geo Chap 1 & 2 - January 8 2008 Chapter 1 2 Page 1...

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January 8, 2008 Chapter 1 & 2, Page 1 Geological Catastrophes: Chapters One and Two “Civilization exists by geological consent, subject to change without notice.”—Will Durant Chapter One Vocabulary 1. Carrying Capacity : The maximum population size that can be supported under a given set of environmental conditions 2. Demographic Divide : Most wealthy countries have low birth rates and long life expectancies. Mostly poor countries have high birth rates and shorter life expectancies. 3. Demographic Transition : The change from a human population with high birth rates and high death rates to one with low birth rates and low death rates 4. Earthquake : The shaking of the Earth by seismic waves radiating away from a disturbance, most commonly a fault movement. 5. Energy : Capacity for performing work. 6. Exponential Growth : Growth in a compound fashion that, given time, leads to incredible numbers 7. Fertility : The ability to produce offspring; the proportion of births to a population. 8. Frequency : Number of events in a given time interval. For earthquakes, it is the number of cycles of seismic waves that pass in a second; frequency = 1/period 9. Great Natural Disaster : A disaster so overwhelming that outside assistance is needed to handle the rescue and recovery of the region. 10. Magnitude : An assessment of the size of an event. Magnitude scales exist for earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and tornadoes. For earthquakes, different magnitudes are calculated for the same earthquake when different types of seismic waves are used. 11. Meteorite : A stony or metallic body from space that passed through the atmosphere and landed on the surface of the earth. 12. Mitigation : Actions taken by humans to minimize the possible effects of a natural hazard 13. Mortality : Death rate; the proportion of deaths to population 14. Natural Disaster : An event or process that destroys live and/or property 15. Natural Hazard : A source of danger to life, property, and the environment. The probability of occurrence of a dangerous event. 16. Return Period : Amount of time between an event of a given size 17. Tsunami : Giant, long-period sea waves caused by oceanic disturbances, such as fault movements, volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts, and land slides. 18. Volcano : An opening of the Earth’s surface where magma has poured or blown forth, typically creating hills or mountains Chapter Two Vocabulary 1. Acre Feet : A measure of water volume where 1 acre of surface is covered 1 ft deep. An acre is about 90% of the area between the goal lines on a football field. 2. Actualism : Using the actual processes operating on Earth today to interpret the past; not inventing unrecognized processes to explain the past. 3. Albedo : The reflectivity of a body; for the Earth, how much solar radiation is reflected back to space.
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