Geo Chap 3

Geo Chap 3 - Chapter 3 Page 1 Geological Catastrophes...

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Chapter 3, Page 1 Geological Catastrophes Lecture: Chapter Three Chapter Three Vocabulary 1. CE : Common era. Equivalent to AD. 2. Cohesion : A mass property of sediments where particles cohere or stick together. 3. Continental Drift : The movement of continents across the face of the Earth, including their splitting apart and recombination into new continents. 4. Convection : A process of heat transfer where hot material at depth rises upward due to its lower density while cooler material above sinks because of its higher density. 5. Convergence Zone : A linear area where plates collide and move closer together. This is a zone of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain ranges, and deep-open trenches. 6. Curie Point : The temperature above which a mineral will not be magnetic. 7. Divergence Zone : A linear formed where plates pull apart as at a spreading center. 8. Earthquake Weather : A common misconception; there is no connection between weather and earthquakes. Weather occurs as the Earth’s surface and earthquakes occur deep below the surface. 9. Epicenter : The point on the surface of the Earth directly above a fault movement (ie earthquake location). 10. Escape Tectonics : Collision of continents may cause large areas to move way from pressure, such as Turkey moving west away from Arabia, and Indo-China squeezing eastward away from India. 11. Fault : A fracture of belt of fractures where the two sides move past each other. 12. Fossil : Evidence of former life, including bones, shells, teeth, leaves, and footprints. 13. Gondwanaland : A southern supercontinent that included South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, and India during Jurassic time. 14. Hot Spot : A place on Earth where a plume of magma has risen upward from the mantle and through a plate to reach the surface. 15. Latitude : Reference lines that encircle the Earth parallel to the equator. The equator is 0° latitude and other lines are proportioned up to 90°N (North Pole) or 90°S (South Pole). Perpendicular to longitude. 16. Laurasia : A northern supercontinent that included most of North America, Greenland, Europe, and Asia (excluding India) from about 180 to 75 million years ago. 17. Lava : Magma that flows on the Earth’s surface. 18. Magnetic Field : A region where magnetic forces affect any magnetized bodies or electric currents. Earth is surrounded by a magnetic field. 19. Magnetic Pole : The point where the Earth’s magnetic field flows back into the ground. Currently, this point is near the North Pole. 20. Magnetism : A group of physical phenomena associated with moving electricity. 21. Pangea : A supercontinent that existed during Late Paleozoic time when all the continents were unified into a single landmass. 22.
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Geo Chap 3 - Chapter 3 Page 1 Geological Catastrophes...

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