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Geo Chap 5 - Chapter 5 Page 1 Geological Catastrophes...

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January 24, 2008 Chapter 5: Page 1 Geological Catastrophes: Chapter Five Chapter Five Vocabulary: 1. Flank Collapse : A catastrophic event where the side of an oceanic volcano falls into the sea. 2. Seiche : An oscillating wave on a lake or landlocked sea that varies in period from a few minutes to several hours. I. Review Earthquake Effects A. Primary Effects 1. Permanent Displacement of the Ground 2. Shaking a) Sediment Amplification b) Resonance 3. Liquefaction 4. Triggering of mass movement 5. Triggering of sea waves (tsunami) 6. Triggering of fires II. Recent Tsunamis A. November 15, 1994: Mindoxo Island, Philippines B. June 2, 1994: East Java C. December 12, 1992: Flores Island (1,000 fatalities) D. February 17, 1996: Iriar Jaya E. January 1, 1996: Sulawesi Island F. October 9, 1995: Jalisco, Mexico G. July 12, 1993: Okushiri, Japan H. July 17, 1998: Papua, New Guinea (2,200 fatalities) I. September 2, 1992: Nicaragua J. February 21, 1996: North Coast of Peru III. Wave Vocabulary A. Length : the distance between crests or troughs B. Amplitude : the height of crest or trough C. Period : the time between successive crests or troughs IV. Tsunami A. Generated by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium. 1. Earthquake fault rupture 2. Mass movements (landslides) 3. Explosive volcanic eruptions and flank collapse 4. Impacts B. Long wavelength sea waves, wavelength ~800 km (the curvature of the earth allows you to see ~40km)
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January 24, 2008 Chapter 5: Page 2 C. Velocity = √gD where g is acceleration due to gravity (~10m/s/s) and D is the Depth of the ocean (~5.5 km=5000 m) 1. = ~840 km/hr (~520 mi/hr) in the open ocean; 100 km/hr (~60 mi/hr) near shore V. Tsunami vs. Wind-blown Wave A. Wind Blown Ocean Wave 1. Periods range from 5s to 20s 2. Lengths vary from 39m (130ft) to 624m (2050ft) B. Tsunami 1. Period is 3600s (1hr) 2.
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