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Geo Chap 6 & 7

Geo Chap 6 & 7 - Chapter 6 7 Page 1 Geological...

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January 29, 2008 & January 31, 2008 Chapter 6 & 7, Page 1 Geological Catastrophes: Chapters Six and Seven Chapter Six Vocabulary: 1. Blind Thrust : A reverse fault of shallow inclination that does not break the surface. 2. Coal : A sedimentary rock made largely of plate remains. Coal is readily combustible. 3. Directivity : A rupturing fault directs more energy in the direction it is moving. 4. Globe Positioning System (GPS) : Accurate measurement by satellite of monitored ground sites. 5. Liquefaction : The temporary transformation of water-saturated, loose sediment into a fluid, typically caused by seismic waves. 6. Neotectonics : The study of the youngest faults and tectonic movements. 7. Paleoseismology : The study of prehistoric earthquakes. 8. Photosynthesis : The process where plants produces organic compounds from water and carbon dioxide using the energy of the Sun. 9. Slurry : A highly mobile, low-viscosity mixture of water and fine sediment. 10. Thrust Fault : A reverse fault where the upper fault block is pushed up a shallow- dipping fault surface. Chapter Seven Vocabulary: 1. Avalanche : A large mass of snow, ice, soil, or rock that moves rapidly downslope under the pull of gravity. 2. Embayment : An indentation of the shoreline; depressed land near the mouth of a river. 3. Failed Rift : Site of a spreading center that did not open far enough to create an ocean basin. 4. Fracture Zone : Major lines of weakness in oceanic crust; former transform faults. 5. Harmonic Tremor : Nearly continuous, small earthquakes created by underground magma on the move. 6. Quicksand : Loose sand partially supported by upwarding-flowing water to create a semiliquid mass into which heavy objects sink. 7. Scarp : A steep, clifflike face or slope. 8. Seamount : Submarine hills or mountains, typically former volcanoes. I. Earthquakes in California A. Different Styles of Faulting 1. San Andreas: Strike-Slip Faulting 2. Basin and Range: Normal Faulting 3. Transverse Ranges: Thrust Faulting 4. Northern California: Gorda Plate Subduction 5. Offshore Northern California: Ocean Ridge Transform Faulting II. Earthquake Forecasting
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January 29, 2008 & January 31, 2008 Chapter 6 & 7, Page 2 A. Short Term (Hours; Days) 1. Currently no reliable method available a) Must predict time, location, & magnitude 2. Earthquake Forecasting is next best thing. 3. “Early Warning” available in some countries (after earthquake starts). B. Long Term (Years; Decades) Earthquake probabilities over decades take all of these factors into account 1. Historical earthquakes 2. Known faults 3. Seismicity maps 4. Paleoseismology from trenches 5. Geodetic strain rates from GPS—Crustal Motion Maps III. Major Earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault, 1680-present A. Fort Tejon (1857) 1. M = 7.9 B. San Francisco (1906) 1. M = 7.8 C. Coachella Valley (~1680) 1. M = 7.7 IV. Earthquake Forecasting: Neotectonics and Paleoseismology A. Paleoseismology : Figuring out the earthquake history of an active Fault B. Compressive bends in strike-slip cause land to uplift; pull-apart bends cause land to drop down C. Down-dropped areas accumulate sediment from: 1. Sand washing in from heavy rains 2.
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