Geo Chap 15

Geo Chap 15 - February 14, 2008 Chapter 15: Page 1...

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February 14, 2008 Chapter 15: Page 1 Geological Catastrophes: Chapters Fifteen Chapter Fifteen Vocabulary: 1. Backfire : A fire deliberately set to consume fuel in front of an advancing wildfire in order to stop it. 2. Chaparral : A dense, impenetrable thicket of stiff shrubs especially adapted to a dry season about 6 months long; abundant in California and Baja California. Fire is part of the life cycle of these plants. 3. Combustion : Act of burning. 4. Conduction : Transfer of heat downward or inward through material by communication of kinetic energy from particle to particle. 5. Convection : A process of heat transfer where hot material at depth rises upward due to its lower density while cooler material above sinks because of its higher density. 6. Diffusion : Intermingling movement caused by thermal agitation with flow of particles from hotter to cooler zones. 7. Duff : A mat of organic debris in which fire can smolder for days. 8. Fire : The rapid combination of oxygen with organic material to produce flame, heat, and light. 9. Firebrand : Burning debris such as branches and embers that are lifted above the fire and carried away to possibly start new fires. 10. Firestorm : A fire of large enough size to disturb the atmosphere with excess heat, thus creating its own winds. 11. Foehn : A warm, dry wind on the leeside of a mountain range. 12. Fuel : Any substance that produces heat by combustion. 13. Fuel-Driven Fires : Fire burning on calm weather days that advances slowly through the fuel giving firefighters opportunities to stop the fire. 14. Heat : The capacity to raise the temperature of a mass, expressed in calories. 15. Ladder Fuels : Vegetation of varying height in an area that allows fire to move easily from the ground to the tree tops. 16. Oxidation : Combination with oxygen. In fire, oxygen combines with organic matter; in rust, oxygen combines with iron. 17. Photosynthesis : The process where plants produce organic compounds from water and carbon dioxide using the energy of the Sun. 18. Pyrolysis : Chemical decomposition by the action of heat. 19. Radiation : Heat emitted as rays. 20. Slash : Debris such as logs, branches, needles left on the ground by logging or high winds. 21. Wind-Driven Fires : Wind-driven fire fronts that move fat and the wind carries firebrands forward starting spot fires up to 1 mi ahead. Firefighters scramble to put out spot fires and can do little against the flame front.
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February 14, 2008 Chapter 15: Page 2 I. What is Fire? A. Rapid combination of oxygen with carbon, hydrogen, other elements of organic nature in reaction that produces flame, heat and light B. Fire reaction: 1. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + released heat C. Is reverse of photosynthesis reaction: 1. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + heat from Sun C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 D. Solar energy stored by plants during growth is returned to atmosphere during fire: 1. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 2. Glucose (similar to cellulose, the main component of wood)
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course GEOL 20 taught by Professor Steidl during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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Geo Chap 15 - February 14, 2008 Chapter 15: Page 1...

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