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Geo Chap 15 - Chapter 15 Page 1 Geological Catastrophes...

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February 14, 2008 Chapter 15: Page 1 Geological Catastrophes: Chapters Fifteen Chapter Fifteen Vocabulary: 1. Backfire : A fire deliberately set to consume fuel in front of an advancing wildfire in order to stop it. 2. Chaparral : A dense, impenetrable thicket of stiff shrubs especially adapted to a dry season about 6 months long; abundant in California and Baja California. Fire is part of the life cycle of these plants. 3. Combustion : Act of burning. 4. Conduction : Transfer of heat downward or inward through material by communication of kinetic energy from particle to particle. 5. Convection : A process of heat transfer where hot material at depth rises upward due to its lower density while cooler material above sinks because of its higher density. 6. Diffusion : Intermingling movement caused by thermal agitation with flow of particles from hotter to cooler zones. 7. Duff : A mat of organic debris in which fire can smolder for days. 8. Fire : The rapid combination of oxygen with organic material to produce flame, heat, and light. 9. Firebrand : Burning debris such as branches and embers that are lifted above the fire and carried away to possibly start new fires. 10. Firestorm : A fire of large enough size to disturb the atmosphere with excess heat, thus creating its own winds. 11. Foehn : A warm, dry wind on the leeside of a mountain range. 12. Fuel : Any substance that produces heat by combustion. 13. Fuel-Driven Fires : Fire burning on calm weather days that advances slowly through the fuel giving firefighters opportunities to stop the fire. 14. Heat : The capacity to raise the temperature of a mass, expressed in calories. 15. Ladder Fuels : Vegetation of varying height in an area that allows fire to move easily from the ground to the tree tops. 16. Oxidation : Combination with oxygen. In fire, oxygen combines with organic matter; in rust, oxygen combines with iron. 17. Photosynthesis : The process where plants produce organic compounds from water and carbon dioxide using the energy of the Sun. 18. Pyrolysis : Chemical decomposition by the action of heat. 19. Radiation : Heat emitted as rays. 20. Slash : Debris such as logs, branches, needles left on the ground by logging or high winds. 21. Wind-Driven Fires : Wind-driven fire fronts that move fat and the wind carries firebrands forward starting spot fires up to 1 mi ahead. Firefighters scramble to put out spot fires and can do little against the flame front.
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February 14, 2008 Chapter 15: Page 2 I. What is Fire? A. Rapid combination of oxygen with carbon, hydrogen, other elements of organic nature in reaction that produces flame, heat and light B. Fire reaction: 1. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + released heat C. Is reverse of photosynthesis reaction: 1. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + heat from Sun C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 D. Solar energy stored by plants during growth is returned to atmosphere during fire: 1. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 2. Glucose (similar to cellulose, the main component of wood) II. Benefits of Fire A. Used by humans for hundreds of thousands of years 1. Allowed migration into colder climates 2. Diverse successful civilizations 3.
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