exam2 spring07 russell music120 - Music Appreciation...

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Unformatted text preview: Music Appreciation MUlZO-Ol Name _ Dr. Craig H. Russell ‘ Spring 2007, Exam No. 2 1. Multiple Choice: mark the letter of the correct answer on your Scantron. (2 points each) 1. In the Middle Ages, music was defined as being A. the combination of beautiful sounds for the edification of humankind. B. the audible resonance of heavenly love through musical instruments. C. the expression of human emotion in praise of God. D. the offering of the Church to God, and thus the only antidote to sin. E. number made audible (mathematics that we can hear). 80377)) [,{S 2. Of the following, which were the product of cross—cultural contact between the inh bitants of the Americas, Africa, and Europe?” iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii “ {7 H [CM /A(gigue and allemande B. pavana and saltarello C. 'umbé and chacona Mourante and galliard /E./recitative and aria 3. During the Middle Ages the four modes were . /A./the most common stanza structures and rhyme schemes that were utilized in Medieval poetry, A especially in the “cantatas” of the troubadours. ficale systems inherited from the Greeks but used in Medieval church music; each of the modes \ had its own “power” or effect'when used. /G./ the dances invented by the Greeks that were exceedingly sensual (and thus banned). These modes served as the basis for the invention of the lascivious suite in the Renaissance. /D: a family of instruments, each of which had six strings and frets, but they were bowed like a cello instead of plucked like a guitar. 7E? instrumental works that were neumatic and syllabic in construction. 4. What major historical figure found himself expelled from the Church because he had made public his 95 theses or complaints—the principal one being that the Church offices and Church privileges (such as forgiveness of sins) should not be for sale to the highest bidder. The Pope was unwilling to agree completely, partially because he needed the money to pay for the construction of St. Peter’s Cathedral and other expensive projects. "VAC uther B. Machaut C. Descartes D. Louis XIV E. Bardi 5. What major work by a Baroque composer incorporates a melody by Martin Luther in its opening movement (#1), a middle movement (#4), and the last movement (#8)? It was meant to be part of a church service and was composed in order to depict the “battle between good and evil” that would have been the topic of the sermon. A. Die Kunst der F age (The Art of the Fugue) by Gutenberg. B. the masterful opera Freude, freude (Rejoice, rejoice greatly) by GE Handel. C. the sonata Scha'ne Phyllis (Fair Phyllis) by Henry Purcell. (:DDCantata No. 80, “Einfeste Burg ” (A Mighty Fortress) by Bach. E. the Vespers service Ars Nova by Guillaume Machaut. 6. If a text is set so that some syllables are sung to two or three different pitches, (in other words, we might have 30 syllables set so that we hav bout 45 notes) it is called A. fugal B. melismatic @eumatic D. responsorial E. modal 7. Which of the following characteristics would most likely be found in an aria? /A( a cup of coffee & pastry C. a courante or gigue /Bén irregular or vague pulse (9) singable “catchy” tune ‘ ’ ‘ ' ' ,,_E<"a thin, sparse accompaniment 1 8. The most solemn ritual of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages that contained the two categories of prayers (the Proper texts that varied according to the day) and the Ordinary texts (that remained the same regardless of the day) was called _. It derived from the sacred celebration of Communion (the Eucharist or Lor ’ supper), which is the reenactment of the sacrifice of Christ. A. Office B. Motet C. Mass ’ D. Organum E. Oratorio \_7/ 9. The trivium and the quadrivium were the Mwo most important Church services celebrated by monks and nuns. . Medieval names for “torque wrench” and “chain saw.” . most common formal structures found in Baroque Period concertos. (é the subjects that comprised the fields of study in a Medieval university. . Greek systems of scales and rhythms that were “rediscovered” in the Renaissance. 10. What major period is strongly associated with music that 1) is Eh in contrast, 2) is extremely grandiose and theatrical, 3) is rich in detail, and 4) has steady rhythms that cause the melodies to unr el and unwind? Those traits would indicate the work was probably from “he Baroque B. the Renaissance C. the 12th-century D. Mars E. the troubadours 11. During the Middle Ages, people kept track of time on a daily basis (much like our views of one A o’clock? five o’clock? etc.) by the singing of /A./h’ymn tunes called sonatas intended for the congregation or general populace. The priest made / the call for these prayers and hymns at dawn, mid-day, and dusk. /B./oratorios (that celebrated communion), that were sung normally 5 times during the day. Mork tunes called estampie that formed the core of Gregorian Chant. Each hour had its own estampie. ‘ ‘13)“? Psalms of David in services called the Hours that were sung 8 times a day. They were often sung in convents or monasteries. E. ritornellos and arias. The ritornellos were drawn from the Old Testament and the arias were drawn from the New Testament. Each “hour” had its own scripture & tune. 12. A compositional category that arose in the Baroque that emphasized a single instrument—or very small group of three or four instruments—and rchestra at all, is called a(n) Matorio /B./courante /Q’ concerto @sonata Mantata 13. The Crusades, the reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors, and the development of new agricultural techniques in Italy, all occurred in the Mate Renaissance and helped prepare the shift in focus to the Baroque. )3? arly Baroque and helped prepare the shift in focus to “second practice.” C. ate Middle Ages (12m—l4th centuries) and helped prepare the shift to the Renaissance. /D./early Middle Ages and helped prepare the shift in focus to the Baroque. E. early Renaissance and helped prepare the shift in focus to the Ars Nova or “New Art.” 14. e “vernacular” is another word for anything that is “regular” such as every-day language B. religious, sacred, or holy C. written in Latin D. irritating and distressing E. vocal as opposed to instrumental 15. If there is an alternation in style where erson sings, followed by a group, followed by the single person again, who is then answered by the group—and this continues—then the performance style could best be de‘ed as A. antiphonal esponson'al C. atonal D. neumatic E. syllabic 16. , 'chelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci were both active at roughly the same time as the composers Eosquin & Farmer yI-Iandel & Machiavelli ,GTV1vald1 and Machaut /D’ the troubadours & Monteverdi /F/Bach and Hildegard 17. The concept titled “Music of the Spheres” stated that . umans were in charge of their own “sphere” (=the earth) during their temporary reign on this planet. Thus, the human ear and human sensibilities were of prime importance. /BAhere are twelve notes that are all separated from each other by the distance of an octave. If one ascends from note to note—— octave by octave— —one completes a circle or “sphere of pitches.” Ml music was spherical in nature: any resonating body generated music by cyclic actions (up~ down-up-down . . or back-and forth-and back-and forth. . .) Thus “perfect” music was /_ circular as opposed to angular or “imperfect” music. ( D. e heavenly bodies that revolved around the earth actually made music. Thus the harmony of "2 nature and of God’s heaven was musical. Whenever humans died and made it to heaven, they too would hear this gorgeous music. B. there were three kinds of vocal music: sacred, military, and courtly. Each of these “spheres” or styles was not to be confused with the other two. It was not until the Baroque that thesew styles began to be co-mingled. 18. A femaleBarogue composer of great technical skill who was the daughter of Venetian poet and playwright was_ .She was active as a singer and a participant in debates at the Accademia degli Unisoni. In 1644 she issued a volume of madrl gals on texts by her father. She wrote a highly expressive cantata Begli occhi (Beautzfifl Eyes) in which there are many shifts between unmeasured and measured rhythms as well as abrupt tempo and mood changes. This composer was A. Andrea von Ramm B. Carmen della M e : na C. Eloise de Vrée D. Maria Paola Boecio @: bara Strozzi 19. A bass line that is played by a bass melodic instrument (such as a cello or bassOon) and at least one improvising chor a1 instrument (such as an organ or guitar) is called a(n) A. ostinato asso continuo C. contrabass D. ritornello E. concertino " he three movements differ in character and mood, but each highlights at various moments the spectacular abilities of a solo violinist alternating with a larger orchestra. It utilizes a recurring orchestral refrain called a ritornello. .The various instruments and voices imitate each other in splendid heterophony, passing the main tune from violin, to trumpet, to chorus, to flute, to piano, etc. The text was authored by a founder of modern Italian literature, Dante. [QT he four vocal soloists represent the four seasons. Spring (the most beautiful!) is a soprano, whereas Summer is an alto, Autumn is a tenor, and Winter of course is sung by a bass. It is the first Baroque cantata that was staged with actual costumes. DTThe seven movements build 1n energy and fervor as the piece unfolds. Each paints a scene from ’/ “,’nature ’including the birds 1n movement 1, woodland creatures in movement 2, the thundershower in movement 4 and mid- day “heat” in the last movement. E. This extended trio sonata established Vivaldi’ s fame across Italy and eventually got him a job for Pope Urban IX. It IS written for a flute, violin, and harpsichord— a grouping that became standardized, largely due to the popularity of this work. 20011:: following statements concerning Vivaldi’s La Primavera (Spring), which is most accurate? 21. A hymn sung in German intended initially for congregational singing with simple, tuneful melodies 1n strophic form 15 a(n) A. madn gal B. sonata C. cantata D. concerto .1. E. horale \K 22. Roughly speaking, when did the Renaissance take place? . A. 400—800 /B./1800-1900 {94000—1300 @400-1600 E. 700-900 23. Thd Italian30mposer known as “the red priest” who taught at the school of music known as the Pieta or orphaned girls was _. During his lifetime he was respected, but his popularity waned toward the end of his life, and he was forgotten for almost 200 years. The Baroque revival in 1950s established his reputation among music lovers once again. Although he wrote operas and church music, he is most famous for his 450+ concertos! ,r-\ A. de Ponte B. Monteverdi 5C. Vivaldi D. Petrarch E. Bottecelli 24. Of the following, which lateggogue composer was born into a family of musicians and raised . primarily by his older brother. He worked in Weimar, Cothen, and—most importantly—in the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig where he was responsible for the music education of about 55 students. He was married twice and had 19 sons, and several of them became very famous in their own right. He was a deeply religious man—a Lutheran—and wrote the letters J.J, standing for Jesu Juva (Jesus help), at the beginning of each of his sacred compositions, and he finished his works by signing “S.D.G.” for Soli Deo Gloria ( to God Alone the Glory). He spent his entire life in German- speaking cities, never- making it to Italy, France, England, or Spain. Several of his important works , include The Well—Tempered Clavier, The Musical Offering, and The Brandenbyr Concertos. A. Gutenberg B. Mozart C. Hummel D. Handel SE. ach 25. In the®ddle Age , writers generally divided music into three levels, that they called Musrca a ma (the Music of ancient Rome), musica europea (the music commonly heard in Europe), and musica Hellenistic (music played in ancient Greece). /B. musica oscurus (“dark” or sad music), musica dominantus (the dominant music most often heard), and musica esplendoris (“happy” music that glorifies God). C. musica vocalis (vocal music), musica instrumentalis (music made by wind and string fl . . instruments), and musica percusionis (music made by drums & other percussion). . D/musica sagrada (music of the church), musica popularis (music at social functions such as parties), and musica segundillo (work songs). @usica universalis (music made by the planets), musica humana (the music caused by being a \ human being), and musica instrumentalis (the music that we make & hear). 26. Of the follo . '- 3 events or attitudes, which were largely responsible for propelling Western civilizatio @ the Renaissance into the emotions of the Baroque: /A./fhe invention of basketball. Previously everyone in Europe had gotten along fine, but with the development of pro sports, rivalries and animosities grew until wars broke out. /B./the Industrial Revolution, the invention of the steam engine and power loom, and the fall of Constantinople. . . C. the development of modern science and technology, especially due to Newton’s and Leibnlz’s view on the physical sciences and mathematics. D. the religious views that only Latin was acceptable in God’s house. This controversial return to the “good old days” was responsible for setting off the Hundred-Years-War. @e rift in the Church following the Reformation, the rush for colonial expansion by the European powers, and attitudes about Greek music and drama. 2’95 27 ':.ch of the following is NOT true with respect ton the Baroque Period? . h . order to economize, operas generally had no scenery or costumes, unlike its related cousrn—t e cantata—that was much more lavish, extravagant, impressive, and expensive. . In all of Europe, Italian was the most common and standard language for “serious” opera, even if the production was taking place in Vienna, London, or Hamburg. C. Opera became an extremely influential and beloved artistic genre; its popularity spread all over Europe, and it became the most prestigious category of composition. . hey often employed castrati in the lead roles. Thus, a “male” hero might have a very high melodic part in the soprano register. Ji/I‘ he plots were often derived from Greek legends or myths. Thus, legends or secular themes abound and sacred, religious plots are rare. 28. The concept that t ' is inherent dignity and value in humankind is called A. egocentrism B. umanism C. empiricism D. secularism E. dadajsm 29. The guinea represents A/the Baroque fascination with the “sacred” and the Church. It was a highly reverent piece used in «2” Baroque worship, especially in Spain and Italy. /B./ffie main deadly sin (sensual pleasure and selfish greed) that was believed to keep a soul from winning salvation. In the early Renaissance, Machaut advocated the singing of Psalms and playing of instruments as the only ways to conquer this vice. an African-American piece for church that was composed in a “street—style” that reflected the regular. 'c that people would hear in an African—American neighborhood. /DT the {Medieval fascination with Islam and “higher learning.” It is a poetic type that later became the sonnet and chivalric epic. E. the main classification of Biblical readings in the Middle Ages. It represents any scripture from the writings of Paul. 30. \Camerata was a group éf drama fans in Florence who were interested in reviving Greek drama. . of photographers in Cayucos who invented the flash bulb and dark room. C. of German knights who wrote down the first recorded dance music. D. of soloists within a sonata (the large group being the tutti). E. of philosophers dedicated to the suppression of Pope Gregory and his views on Realism. .3 “i...“ ,__\ ““" z’“ 31. Which of the following is QOJ) true with respect to the W X Artists began to feel that art could be for the benefit of man while in this world, and not just to win salvation to the next heavenly world. /B./T here was much more interest in politics and secular affairs than previously in the Middle Ages. C. It was the Age of Exploration with European nations exploring the Americas, Africa, and much of Asia—and putting those regions in cultural contact with each other. /D./Modern languages (English, Italian, French, Castillian, etc.) began to replace Latin as the preferred language in poetry and literature. @umans became increasingly concerned with church music and sacred issues, and as a result, . ' they began to ignore secular art forms almost completely. 32. A Middle Ages composer active in the 13005 (a time called the Ars Nova or New Art) who is known for his highly structured compositions is _. His works are exceedingly well structured mathematically, with numerical patterns in many, many aspects. His Notre Dame Mass is the first polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary by a single composer. He wrote many pieces in poetic forms called the formes fixes, one of which being the 3-voice chanson “Puis qu’en oubli (Since I am forgotten.” His name is: A. Debussy ‘ B. Mont’de Ville K achaut D. Voltaire E. Purcell 5 . 33. If a melody is passed between two different choirs, so that one choir responds to the other choir and they enchange answers back d forth, the performance style is called ’ A. neumatrc B. diastematic . antiphonal D. melismatic E. responsorial 34. A Renaissance work for voices only, that is in English or Italian, that features word painting and often nonsense syllables, is the _/-.- A. concertino B. oratorio C. ritomello @adri gal E. sonata seculan's 35. The Baroque instrumental genre which consisted of a series of dance-like or dance-inspired movements was the ,, \ A. sonata B. cantata C. tutti D. concerto KB. suite U 36. Of the following,‘who was the son of a prosperous barber-surgeon who did not approve of music as a suitable profession? The young son studied at the Universrty of Halle but gravitated to the opera house. He then went to Italy and eventually to England Where he spent most of his creative life. He wrote numerous operas (such as Julius Caesar) and many oratorios. One of his important instrumental pieces was titled Water Music. Near the end of his life he lost his eyesight but nevertheless continued to direct his oratonos and perform on the organ. He became so endeared to the British public and royalty that he was buried in London in Westminster Abbey? A. Gottlieb Muffat B. Georg von Gutenberg . C. Franz Joseph Haydn D. Johann Sebastian Bach @eorge Frederick Handel 37. Medieval philosophers considered the microcosm to be )Ahe small world that could be seen in algebra. In their eyes, all of nature (the macrocosm) could be described in equations (the microcosm). /B: anything smaller than God himself. The God was the macrocosm, and humans were only capable of seeing the microcosm (the universe around us). @e human being who was a miniature encapsulation of the universe. The human being was thusa small reflection of the entire cosmos. D. the five basic substances of matter of the larger universe as seen on earth: there was spirit, solid, liquid, gas, and fire. E. the seven scales used by the Greeks: each of the scales represented the seven stars in the Big Dipper. 38. During the Baroque Period music/wasmeant primarily to A. appeal to the intellect. igyppeal to emotion C. portray numerical symbolism D. be soothing and “sweet” E. reflect the Church’s views 39. A composer who lived and worked in Mexico (ity at the same time that Bach and Handel were alive, who wrote magnificent works for choir and orchestra, and who was the first person born 1n the Americas to write an opera was A. Carlos Chavez B. Aurelio Gonzalez @anuel de Sumaya D. Luis Milan E. Antonio Lauro 40. thius was the musician who was responsible for (A. rriving at a definition of music in the Middle Ages. /B.’ providing the lyrics for most of Johann Sebastian Bach’s many operas. . /C/accidentally creating the concerto grosso while attempting to revive Greek mu51c. anenting the motet in the late Baroque. E. selling Church fav...
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