Chapter_12 - Chapter 12 The Nervous System Structures of...

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Chapter 12 The Nervous System
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Structures of the Nervous System * The nervous system , along with the endocrine system, helps to keep controlled conditions within limits that maintain health and helps to maintain homeostasis. * The nervous system is responsible for all our behaviors, memories, and movements. * The branch of medical science that deals with the normal functioning and disorders of the nervous system is called neurology .
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Structures of the Nervous System The nervous system is made up of the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexus, and sensory receptors The brain is housed within the skull. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the base of the brain through foramina of the skull.
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Structures of the Nervous System A nerve is a bundle of hundreds or thousands of axons, each of which courses along a defined path and serves a specific region of the body. The spinal cord connects to the brain through the foramen magnum of the skull and is encircled by the bones of the vertebral column. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord, each serving a specific region of the body.
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Structures of the Nervous System Ganglia, located outside the brain and spinal cord, are small masses of nervous tissue, containing primarily cell bodies of neurons. Enteric plexuses help regulate the digestive system. Sensory receptors are either parts of neurons or specialized cells that monitor changes in the internal or external environment.
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Functions of the Nervous System The sensory function of the nervous system is to sense changes in the internal and external environment through sensory receptors. Sensory (afferent) neurons serve this function. The integrative function is to analyze the sensory information, store some aspects, and make decisions regarding appropriate behaviors. Association or interneurons serve this function. The motor function is to respond to stimuli by initiating action. Motor(efferent) neurons serve this function.
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Organization The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of cranial and spinal nerves with sensory (efferent) and motor (afferent) components, ganglia, and sensory receptors. a. The sensory system consists of a variety of different receptors as well as sensory neurons. b. The motor system conducts nerve impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands.
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Organization The PNS is also subdivided into somatic (voluntary), autonomic (involuntary), and enteric nervous systems. a.) The somatic nervous system (SNS) consists of neurons that conduct impulses from cutaneous and special sense receptors to the CNS, and motor neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle tissue.
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Organization The autonomic nervous system (ANS) contains sensory neurons from visceral organs and motor neurons that convey impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIOL 141L taught by Professor Townsend during the Spring '06 term at Scranton.

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Chapter_12 - Chapter 12 The Nervous System Structures of...

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