pshcy chap9 - Chapter 9 Learning ► Much of what we do...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Learning ► Much of what we do results from what we have learned ► Observational learning ► 2001 Sesame Street study Learning Basic Terminology ► Learning ► Behaviorism ► Conditioning Classical Conditioning ► Ivan Pavlov ► Basics of Classical Conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Neutral stimulus (NS) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR) Classical Conditioning Dogs and Food Another Example Principles of Classical Conditioning ► Acquisition ► Extinction ► Spontaneous recovery ► Higher-Order Conditioning ► Stimulus Generalization ► Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Emotions Little Albert” experiment - Unexpected outcome - Counter conditioning - Unethical practice Operant Conditioning ► What is operant conditioning? ► Radical Behaviorism ► The Consequences of Behavior Neutral Reinforcement Punishment Primary & Secondary Reinforcers & Punishers #1 Primary (biology): ► Primary reinforcers ► Primary punishers #2 Secondary (learned): ► Secondary reinforcers ► Secondary punishers Positive & Negative Reinforcers & Punishers Reinforcement (increases behavior): ► Positive reinforcement ► Negative reinforcement Punishment (decreases behavior): ► Positive punishment ► Negative punishment Reinforcement Punishment ADD ADD TAKE TAKE Operant Conditioning ► ► ► ► The Skinner Box Extinction Stimulus generalization and discrimination Discriminative stimulus Principles of Operant Conditioning ► Learning on schedule Continuous reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement ► Shaping Successive approximations ► Biological limits on learning Instinctive drift Behavior Modification: Punishment When punishment fails: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Behavior Modification: Rewards ► Misuse of rewards ► Extrinsic (outside) reinforcers ► Intrinsic (internal) reinforcers Learning and the Mind ► Tolman and his rats -latent learning Social-Cognitive Learning ► Social learning theory ► Social-cognitive theory ► Observational learning Studies by Bandura Media violence Advertising Skinner's Rats, Operant Conditioning, and the American Consumer (us!) Thorndike’s Law of Effect ► How it relates to advertising Operant Conditioning/Natural Reinforcement Deceptive use of Reinforcement Token Economy More on Token Economy The Example of Camel Dollars Goodies Menu You need a menu of goodies that you can receive for your Camel dollars. Token Menu- In a token economy you earn points (secondary reinforcers) which can then be cashed in for products. Marlboro Miles Here, for a mere 1800 Marlboro miles, an individual could get an inflatable kayak. The Effects of Modeling and Observational Learning ► Does watching violence on television and in movies make people more violent? ...
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