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psych chap11 - Psychological Disorders Chapter 11 What's...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Disorders Chapter 11 What's Normal? Compartmentalization Defining and Diagnosing Disorder Dilemmas of Definition Diagnosis: Art or Science? Dilemmas of Definition 1. Possible Models for Defining Disorders: Mental disorders as... 2. Mental disorders as... 3. Mental disorders as... The standard reference manual used to DSMIV diagnose all mental disorders. Descriptive, not prescriptive Atheoretical orientation 5 Axes of a Psychological Diagnosis Axis I Axis II Axis III Axis IV Axis V Concerns about Diagnostic System The danger of overdiagnosis The power of diagnostic labels Confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems The illusion of objectivity Advantages of the DSMIV New studies are improving empirical evidence Categories help clinicians to select the most appropriate treatment Culturebound syndromes are now included Psychological Tests Primary use Projective Objective Objective Tests Also known as inventories Independent of rater bias MMPI A Few Important Notes... Anxiety Disorders Anxiety and panic Fears and phobias Obsessions and compulsions Anxiety and Panic Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Fears and Phobias Phobia: an exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object 2 Ways to Therapeutically Approach Phobias Systematic desenitization Flooding Obsessions and Compulsions Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Mood Disorders Depression Major Depression: A mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in one's usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue and loss of appetite). Symptoms of Depression Depressed mood DSM IV Requires 5 of these within the past 2 weeks Reduced interest in almost all activities Significant weight gain or loss, without dieting Sleep disturbance (insomnia or too much sleep) Change in motor activity (too much or too little) Fatigue or loss of energy Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Recurrent thoughts of death Reduced ability to think or concentrate Theories of Depression Biological explanations Social explanations Attachment explanations Theories of Depression (Cont) Cognitive explanations Vulnerabilitystress model Bipolar Disorder Mood Personality Disorders Problem Personalities Personality Disorder: Rigid, maladaptive patterns that cause personal distress or an inability to get along with others. A disorder characterized by an exaggerated sense of selfimportance and selfabsorption. A disorder characterized by habitually unreasonable and excessive suspiciousness and jealousy. Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Paranoid Personality Disorder: Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD): A disorder characterized by antisocial behavior such as lying, stealing, manipulating others, and sometimes violence; and a lack of guilt, shame and empathy. Sometimes called psychopathy or sociopathy. Emotions and Antisocial Personality Disorder People with APD were slow to develop classically conditioned responses to anger, pain, or shock. Such responses indicate normal anxiety . Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders: Conditions in which consciousness or identity is split or altered. A controversial disorder marked by the appearance within on person of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits; used to be commonly known as "Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD)." Dissociative Identity Disorder: Flaws in MPD Diagnosis Flaws in underlying research Pressure and suggestions by clinicians Media influence Drug Abuse & Addiction Most people who use drugs (legal, illegal, or prescription) use them in moderation; others, however, abuse them. The DSMIV defines substance abuse as "a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress." Drug Abuse & Addiction What does clinically significant mean? Question to Consider Are addicts people who refuse to exert free will and moral responsibility, or are they suffering from a disease over which they have no control? Do they belong in prison, or in treatment? Be Careful... Recall the definition of a stereotype: a summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share common traits. What does an addict "look" like? What does an Addict Look Like? Learning, Culture, and Addiction Addiction patterns vary according to cultural practices and the social environment. Policies of total abstinence tend to increase addiction rates rather than reduce them. Not all addicts have withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug. Addiction does not depend on the properties of the drug alone, but also on the reason for taking it. Debating the Causes of Addiction Problems with drugs are more likely when: A person has a physiological vulnerability to a drug. A person believes she or he has no control over the drug. Laws or customs encourage people to take the drug in binges, and moderate use is neither tolerated nor taught. A person comes to rely on a drug as a method of coping with problems, suppressing anger or fear, or relieving pain. Members of a person's peer group use drugs or drink heavily, forcing the person to choose between using drugs or losing friends. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia One day, while I was in the principal's office, suddenly the room became enormous, illuminated by a dreadful electric green light that cast false shadows. Everything was exact, smooth, artificial, extremely tense; the chairs and tables seemed models placed here and there. Pupils and teachers were puppets revolving without cause, without objective. I recognized nothing, nobody. It was as though reality, attenuated, had slipped away from all these things and these people. I needed help; I wanted help. I searched for people around me, and I could hear them talking, but I could not understand the meaning of their words. The voices were metallic color, without warmth. From time to time, a single word detached from the rest, but ideas just shot through my head as if they were cut off by a moldy knife (Sechehaye, 1951). Schizophrenia Bizarre Delusions Hallucinations and Heightened Sensory Awareness Disorganized, Incoherent Speech Grossly Disorganized and Inappropriate Behavior Positive and Negative Symptoms Positive Symptoms Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral excesses Examples of Positive Symptoms: Positive and Negative Symptoms Negative Symptoms Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits Examples of Negative Symptoms Theories of Schizophrenia Genetic predispositions Structural brain abnormalities Neurotransmitter abnormalities Genetic Vulnerability to Schizophrenia The risk of developing schizophrenia (i.e., prevalence) in one's lifetime increases as the genetic relatedness with a diagnosed schizophrenic increases. ...
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