Taste and Olfaction | Boundless Anatomy and Physiology.pdf...

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Special SensesTaste and OlfactionBoundless Anatomy and Physiology
Tastes and OdorsThe senses of taste and smell are related because they use the same types of receptorsand are stimulated by molecules in solutions or air.LEARNING OBJECTIVESExplain the interaction of taste and odorKEY TAKEAWAYSKey PointsHumans can taste sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami; umami is thesavoriness of certain foods that are commonly high in protein.Odors come from molecules in the air that stimulate receptors in thenose; if an organism does not have a receptor for that particular odormolecule, for that organism, the odor has no smell.The senses of smell and taste are directly related because they bothuse the same types of receptors.If one’s sense of smell is not functional, then the sense of taste will alsonot function because of the relationship of the receptors.Key Termsumami: one of the five basic tastes, the savory taste of foods such asseaweed, cured fish, aged cheeses and meatsolfactory: concerning the sense of smell
receptor: a protein on a cell wall that binds with specific molecules sothat they can be absorbed into the cell in order to control certainfunctionsTastes and OdorsBoth taste and odor stimuli are molecules taken in from the environment. The primarytastes detected by humans are sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. The first four tastesneed little explanation. The identification of umami as a fundamental taste occurred fairlyrecently. It was identified in 1908 by Japanese scientist Kikunae Ikeda while he workedwith seaweed broth, but it was not widely accepted as a taste that could bephysiologically distinguished until many years later. The taste of umami, also known assavoriness, is attributable to the taste of the amino acid L-glutamate. In fact,monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is often used in cooking to enhance the savory taste ofcertain foods. The adaptive value of being able to distinguish umami is that savorysubstances tend to be high in protein.
Uniform Distribution of Taste Receptors: Humans detect taste using receptors called tastebuds. Each of these receptors is specially adapted to determine one type of tastesensation. Recent evidence suggests that taste receptors are uniformly distributed acrossthe tongue; thus, the traditional tongue map is no longer valid.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Jane Smith
Tags
Olfaction, olfactory receptor, Taste bud, senses of taste

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