Psyc 4072 -Test One notes - why study adult development...

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why study adult development & aging? To provide crucial perspectives that enhances the understanding of the psychology of adulthood & aging. All knowledge & theories contribute importantly to the study of an individual over time The biopsychosocial perspective A. Biopsychosocial Model 1) Biological: Physiological factors & Genetics  body functions & structure 2) Psychological: Cognition, Emotions, & Personality 3) Sociocultural: Social context, History, & Culture  family, community, & country B. Four main principles of adult development & aging 1) Changes are continuous over the lifespan “continuous principle”: Individuals remain the " same " even though they change - changes occur in later adulthood build on what has happened during one’s past - individuals remain the “same” internally even though they change appearance - E.g. a biologically a person change in their heart with age depends on many ways on the prior functioning of that system throughout their life 2) Individual differences must be recognized: People vary within & btw age groups - as people age, they become more different from each other than alike; perhaps through different experiences 1) inter-individual differences : describes the differences btw people 2) intra-individual differences : describes the differences within an individual 3) It is the survivors who grow old: Aging individuals are increasingly self-selected - the very fact that they’re still alive means: 1) biologically : good genes &/or took good care of themselves 2) psychologically : emotionally healthy 3) socioculturally : surrounded themselves with a good support system - Way to Shorten Your Life Relevant index what are the finding? 1) Being overweight BMI index 33% obese; 33% overweight 2) Drinking & driving fatalities highest % fatal crashes occur @ 21 -24 3) Eating inadequate fruits & vegetables food consumption 14% of adult in US eat recommended amounts of both 4) Being physically inactive leisure time physical activity majority of adults do not exercise 5) Smoking current cigarette smokers smoking peaks in early adulthood (M 35-44 F 25-34) 4) Normal aging is different from disease: Intrinsic aging processes are different from those associated with illness - normal aging ( primary aging ) is built in hard wiring of the organism - impaired gaining or ( secondary aging ) is a function of abnormal - optimal aging : slowed & altered C. The meaning of age 1) divisions of age of the over-65 population 1. young old : 65-74 2. old-old : 75-84 3. oldest old : 85 & older 2) Alternative indices of aging 1. Biological: functioning of organ systems based on the quality of an individual body system 2. Psychological: functioning on psychological tests 3. Social: social roles occupied by the individual based on the which social roles an individual still occupies D.
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