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CASIRJ Volume 6 Issue 9 [Year - 2015]ISSN 2319 9202 International Research Journal of Commerce Arts and Science Page 65 Political Unification under the Mughals Kapil KumarThe Mughal Empireor Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani(meaning "son-in-law") was an empire based in the Indian Subcontinent, established and ruled by a MuslimPersianatedynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the founder Babur's victory over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension o fAkbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior. He also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; while Akbar was Muslim most of this life, he followed a new religion in the latter part of his life called Deen-i-Ilahi, as recorded in historical books like Ain-e-Akbariand Dabestan-e Mazaheb. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practicesand diverse and inclusive ruling elites,leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 162858 was the golden age of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the TajMahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeband also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under ShivajiBhosale. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles), ruling
CASIRJ Volume 6 Issue 9 [Year - 2015]ISSN 2319 9202

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Term
Fall
Professor
Kimani
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The Mughal Empire

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