Ch3-Macromolecules and the Origin of Life

Ch3-Macromolecules and the Origin of Life - 3...

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3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life
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3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates? 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids? 3.5 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids? 3.6 How Did Life on Earth Begin?
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Molecules in living organisms: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids Most are polymers of smaller molecules called monomers . Macromolecules : polymers with molecular weights >1000
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Functional groups : groups of atoms with specific chemical properties and consistent behavior; it confers those properties when attached to large molecules.
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Isomers : molecules with the same chemical formula, but atoms are arranged differently Optical isomers result from asymmetrical carbons . Structural isomers differ in how their atoms are joined together
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Biochemical unity —organisms can obtain required macromolecules by eating other organisms. One macromolecule can contain many different functional groups—determines shape and function.
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Polymers are formed in condensation reactions . Monomers are joined by covalent bonds. A water is removed—also called dehydration reaction .
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Polymers are broken down into monomers in hydrolysis reactions. ( hydro , “water”; lysis , “break”)
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? Functions of proteins Structural support Protection Transport Catalysis Defense Regulation Movement
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? Proteins are made from 20 different amino acids (monomeric units) Polypeptide chain : single, unbranched chain of amino acids The chains are folded into specific three dimensional shapes. Proteins can consist of more than one type of polypeptide chain. The composition of a protein: relative amounts of each amino acid present The sequence of amino acids in the chain determines the protein structure and function.
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? Amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups—they function as both acid and base. The α carbon atom is asymmetrical. Amino acids exist in two isomeric forms: D-amino acids ( dextro , “right”) L-amino acids ( levo , “left”)—this form is found in organisms
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? The side chains or R-groups also have
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Ch3-Macromolecules and the Origin of Life - 3...

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