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Lecture 3-Blood cells and the Immune System for Blackboard 2020.pdf

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2020-09-281Review of Lecture 2Epithelial tissuesline free surfaces of organsClassificationCells are tightly packed, held together by cell-celljunctions and rest on a basement membraneStructure relates to function of the epitheliumSurfaces can be modified (eg. cilia, microvilli, glands)Review of Lecture 2Connective tissuesare made of extracellular matrixwith embedded supporting cells (which create thematrix)May be loose or dense (structure relates to function)Supporting cells are diverse but most commonly arefibroblastsMatrix contains both fibrous (eg. collagen) and gel-like(eg. GAGs) componentsBlood cells and theImmune System1.Overview of Blood2.Blood Cells3.Haematopoiesis4.The Immune System5.Organs of the Immune System123
2020-09-28What is Blood?1. OverviewPhoto: Jheuser, CC BY-SA 3.0
2Blood cell typesRed blood cells, also known aserythrocytesWhite blood cells, also known asleukocytes (also spelled leucocyte)Platelets, also known as thrombocytesSubset of leukocytes:Granulocytes:NeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsAgranulocytes:LymphocytesMonocytes1. OverviewFunctions of Blood CellsErythrocytes: contain hemoglobin and function in thetransport of O2and CO2Leukocytes: role in immune system, also found outside ofthe blood in various body tissuesThrombocytes: control loss of blood from blood vesselsby plugging damaged sections, blood clotting(hemostasis)1. Overview456
2020-09-28How are blood cells studied?1. Overview
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How are blood cells studied?1. Overview
2020-09-284Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)Form through a process of erythropoiesis:Reduction in cell size and number of organellesInactivation and extrusion of nucleusSynthesis of hemoglobinProcess is stimulated by the growth factorerythropoietinMature RBCsAnucleate cellsBiconcave diskBind oxygen and deliver it to tissuesIn exchange bind carbon dioxide forremoval from tissues2. Blood cellsErythrocytesReleased from bone marrow asreticulocytesRetains some organelles at the time ofreleaseHemoglobin and cytoskeleton

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