E1 Study Questions - Chapter 1 KEY CONCEPTS 1. Most living...

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Chapter 1 KEY CONCEPTS 1. Most living organisms share key characteristics: consist of one or more cells, contain genetic information, reproduce themselves, have evolved, and carry out metabolism. 2. Metabolism involves conversions of matter and energy. 3. Evolution is a change in the genetic composition of a population over generational time. 4. Reproduction continues life and provides the basis for evolution. 5. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is arguably the major unifying principle of biology. 6. Life arose from nonlife about 3.8 billion years ago when interacting systems of molecules became enclosed in membranes to form cells. 7. All organisms consist of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells. Life no longer arises from nonlife. 8. The evolution of photosynthetic single-celled organisms that released large amounts of oxygen into Earth’s atmosphere made possible the oxygen-based metabolism of large cells and, eventually, multicellular organisms. 9. All organisms share a common genetic language: a genome of DNA molecules that is expressed in proteins. 10. Complex eukaryotic cells evolved when some large prokaryotes engulfed smaller ones. Eukaryotic cells evolved the ability to “stick together” after they divided, forming multicellular organisms. The individual cells of multicellular organisms became modified for specific functions within the organism. 11. Speciation resulted in the millions of species living on Earth today. 12. Biology is organized into a hierarchy of levels, from molecules to the biosphere. Each level has emergent properties that are not found at lower levels. 13. Species are classified into three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. The domains Archaea and Bacteria consist of prokaryotic cells. The domain Eukarya contains all the eukaryotic organisms. 14. The Tree of Life depicts the latest consensus of ongoing research on the evolutionary relationships among all the species on Earth. 15. Like other fields of science, biology studies nature by using the hypothesis–prediction approach, in which hypotheses are tested by either controlled experiments or by the comparative method. 16. The study of biology is essential to understanding many complex issues affecting both human society and our effects on the larger environment. CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 What Is Biology? Living organisms consist of cells The diversity of life is due to evolution by natural selection Biological information is contained in a genetic language common to all organisms Cells use nutrients to supply energy and to build new structures Living organisms control their internal environment Living organisms interact with one another Discoveries in biology can be generalized 1.2 How Is All Life on Earth Related? Life arose from nonlife via chemical evolution
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIO 140 taught by Professor Morvaridsoltani-bejnood during the Spring '08 term at University of Tennessee.

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E1 Study Questions - Chapter 1 KEY CONCEPTS 1. Most living...

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