Bio 50 outline FINAL

Bio 50 outline FINAL - RNA Editing DNA RNA Protein Uracil,...

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Unformatted text preview: RNA Editing DNA RNA Protein Uracil, cytosine, thymine = pyrimidine Adenine and guanine - Purines o Numbers to know Humans 25,000 genes, 100,000,000,000 neurons, 10^14 synapses Grass 50,00 genes 0 neurons or synapses Fly 15,000 genes, 25000 neurons, 250,000,000 synapses C elegans. 18000 genes, 302 neurons, 10,000 synapses o RNA editing (by ADAR) Adenosine inosine Insosine is read as Guanine 1. Transcription 2. Folding 3. ADAR binding 4. Ternary complex/catalysis 5. Release and Resolution o Tyrosine Cysteine(makes disulfide bonds) when edited o Editing A I I V Only one methyl difference in the make up of the base o Conservative signature RNA editing leaves a signature which conserves the RNA structure signifies editing should occur Prions o Transmission of Phenotypes Inheritance Infectivity Cloning o Kuru : Trembling 1% of population fatal neurodegenerative disease, progressive dementia and ataxia seriously resembles scrapie when looked at on slide o Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies TSEs Three Types Familial o Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD) o Gertmann Straussler Sheiker Syndrome (GSS) o Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) Sporadic o CJD (0.5 -1 million per year) Infectious o Kuru o Latrogenic CJD o BSE (mad cow disease) o Scrapie (sheep) o vCJD o PrP A host encoded protein PRNP gene that codes PrP PRNP is present in health and diseased individuals (they are in different conformations) PrP^c alpha helices PrP^sc beta sheets o THEORIES Self Templated Protein State Replication Protein states replicate by nucleated polymerization Low sporadic Rate of disease Progressive nature of disease Accelerated rate of disease PROBALY NOT CORRECT -- would have been proven if synthetic prions were infectious they dont seem to be. Protein misfolding RNAi o RNA interference silencing o RNA Induced Silencing Complex 1. Transcriptional RISC matches with RNA strand exactly, strand is broken up non capped/poly A ends are degraded silencing 2. Translational RISC matches imperfectly to the RNA strand and stays bound which prevents further translation Possible mechanism o Block ribosome entry onto mRNA o Cause ribosomes to stall on the mRNA o Sequester mRNA to block ribosome engagement o Promote direct degredation of nascent polypeptide 3. Chromatin remodeling (RITS) histone methylation leading to silencing of chromatin SMALL RNAs dsRNA o microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs all will be processed by dicer after being...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIOL 0500 taught by Professor Wessel during the Spring '08 term at Brown.

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Bio 50 outline FINAL - RNA Editing DNA RNA Protein Uracil,...

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