CHAPTER 1 Where do you find research/statistics? At home, at work, at church, in politics. Research should be RELIABLE, VALID, and ACCURATE. What is truth? The knowledge of reality. But what is reality? Reality comes from: Theory (How we look) Perception (What we see) Retention (What we remember) There must be Correspendence=between mind and reality as well as Coherence (no contradictions) Material culture=physical objects that societies create. Non-material culture=attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, and behaviors that people learn as part of the culture they live in. Operational Definition=the definition you choose to definite words with. *Be precise with your words. How do you obtain knowledge? 6 Methods of Knowing: 1. Experience (trial and error) 2. Tenacity (method of tradition) 3. Authority (established beliefs) 4. Intuition (agrees with reason) 5. Science (scientific method) 6. Theology ( Critical Errors in Reasoning: •over-generalization •selective or inaccurate observation •illogical reasoning •resistance to change Scientific Method avoids the critical errors in reasoning (over generalization, etc.) by using random/systematic sampling, theory, and evidence. Exploratory research=seeing information Descriptive research=describing social phenomenon Explanatory research=identifying and testing causes and effects Evaluation research=determining impact of social programs What is science? An objective, systematic analysis of a body of data to discover recurring relationships among phenomena. 1. Objective - unbiased, detached, impersonal. Viewing things as they really are. 2. Systematic - methodical, regular procedure. 3. Deterministic=
The “scientific method” - Ask a question, background research, hypothesis, test data, analyze results, draw conclusions, report results, and repeat Use of accepted research methods: 1. helps us develop scientific knowledge claims 2. provides a framework to assess a problem Norms of the Scientific Community ● Universalism - research is to be judged only on the basis of scientific merit. ● Organized Skepticism - challenge and question all evidence, ask why ● Disinteredness - scientists must be neutral ● Communalism - scientific knowledge must be shared ● Honesty - scientists demand honesty in all research Major Goals of Science
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- Fall '08
- researcher, Longitudinal study, Conceptualization and Measurement, scientific community, scientific knowledge claims