anthro study guide exam 1

anthro study guide exam 1 - Chapter 10 Culture set of...

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Chapter 10 Culture – set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population Subculture – commonly shared customs of group w/in society…central concern of sociology *culture is learned Society – group of people occupying territory; speak common language Ethnocentrism – notion of judging other cultures solely in terms of one’s own culture Early evolutionism – culture develops in a uniform and progressive manner Cultural relativism – society’s customs & ideas should be described objectively and understood in context of that society’s problems and opportunities Ideal cultural patterns – ideas about how people in particular situations ought to feel and behave Mal-adaptive customs – customs that diminish chances of survival and reproduction Adaptive – customs of a society that enhance survival and reproductive success Chapter 11 Symbolic – communication has meaning and the meaning is arbitrary Pidgin/Creole languages – highly simplified language Descriptive/structural linguistics – try to discover rules of phonology, morphology, and syntax Phonology – the patterning of sounds Morphology – the patterning of sound sequences to form meaningful units Syntax – patterning of phrases and sentences Phone – a speech sound in a language Phoneme – a sound or set of sounds that makes a difference in meaning in that language Morph – the smallest unit of language that has a meaning Morpheme – one or more morphs with the same meaning Lexicon –
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