CHAPTER 18 - Chapter 18 Ionic Equilibria Acids and Bases 1...

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1 Chapter 18: Ionic Equilibria: Acids and Bases
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2 Chapter Goals 1. A Review of Strong Electrolytes 2. The Autoionization of Water 3. The pH and pOH Scales 4. Ionization Constants for Weak Monoprotic Acids and Bases 5. Polyprotic Acids 6. Salts of Strong Bases and Strong Acids
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3 Chapter Goals 1. Salts of Strong Bases and Weak Acids 2. Salts of Weak Bases and Strong Acids 3. Salts of Weak Bases and Weak Acids
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4 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acid: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. Bases: taste bitter and feel soapy. Litmus: Acid Blue to Red and Base Red to Blue . Arrhenius: acids increase [H + ] bases increase [OH - ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid + base salt + water. HCl + NaOH NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) Problem: the definition confines us to aqueous solution.
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5 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases The H The H + Ion in Water Ion in Water The H + ( aq ) ion is simply a proton with no electrons. (H has one proton, one electron, and no neutrons.) In water, the H + ( aq ) form clusters. The simplest cluster is H 3 O + ( aq ). Larger clusters are H 5 O 2 + and H 9 O 4 + . Generally we use H + ( aq ) and H 3 O + ( aq ) interchangeably.
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6 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases The H The H + Ion in Water Ion in Water
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7 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Proton Transfer Reactions Proton Transfer Reactions Focus on the H + ( aq ). Brønsted-Lowry: acid donates H + and base accepts H + . Brønsted-Lowry base does not need to contain OH - . Consider HCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ): HCl donates a proton to water. Therefore, HCl is an acid. H 2 O accepts a proton from HCl. Therefore, H 2 O is a base. Water can behave as either an acid or a base. Amphoteric substances can behave as acids and bases.
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8 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Proton Transfer Reactions Proton Transfer Reactions
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9 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Whatever is left of the acid after the proton is donated is called its conjugate base . Similarly, whatever remains of the base after it accepts a proton is called a conjugate acid . Consider After HA (acid) loses its proton it is converted into A - (base). Therefore HA and A - are conjugate acid- base pairs. After H 2 O (base) gains a proton it is converted into H 3 O + (acid). Therefore, H 2 O and H 3 O + are conjugate acid-base pairs. Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by only one proton. HA( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + A - ( aq )
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10 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Relative Strengths of Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases Acids and Bases The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base.
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