CHAPTER 07&08 - CHAPTER 7: Chemical Bonding Chapter Goals...

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CHAPTER 7: Chemical Bonding
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2 Chapter Goals 1. Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Ionic Bonding 1. Formation of Ionic Compounds Covalent Bonding 1. Formation of Covalent Bonds 2. Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions 3. Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule
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3 Chapter Goals 1. Resonance 2. Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the Octet Rule 3. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 4. Dipole Moments 5. The Continuous Range of Bonding Types VSEPR Theory and Valence Bond Theory
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4 Introduction Attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds are called chemical bonds. The electrons involved in bonding are usually those in the outermost (valence) shell.
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5 Introduction Chemical bonds are classified into two types: o Ionic bonding results from electrostatic attractions among ions, which are formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. o Covalent bonding results from sharing one or more electron pairs between two atoms.
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6 Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Lewis dot formulas or Lewis dot representations are a convenient bookkeeping method for tracking valence electrons . Valence electrons are those electrons that are transferred or involved in chemical bonding. They are chemically important.
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7 Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Li Be B C N O F Ne .. .. .. .. .. He H . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
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8 Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Elements that are in the same periodic group have the same Lewis dot structures. Li & Na . . N & P .. .. . . . . . . F & Cl .. . .. . . . . .. .. .
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9 Covalent Bonding Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons. If the atoms share 2 electrons a single covalent bond is formed. If the atoms share 4 electrons a double covalent bond is formed. If the atoms share 6 electrons a triple covalent bond is formed. The attraction between the electrons is electrostatic in nature The atoms have a lower potential energy when bound.
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10 Formation of Covalent Bonds This figure shows the potential energy of an H 2 molecule as a function of the distance between the two H atoms.
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11 Formation of Covalent Bonds Representatio n of the formation of an H 2 molecule from H atoms.
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12 Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule The octet rule states that representative elements usually attain stable noble gas electron configurations in most of their compounds. Lewis dot formulas are based on the octet rule. We need to distinguish between bonding (or shared) electrons and nonbonding (or unshared or lone pairs) of electrons.
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13 Drawing Lewis Structures Rules for drawing Lewis Structures of Compounds 1. Obtain the total number of valence electrons by adding the valence electrons of all of the atoms in the compound in the molecule. For an ion add or subtract electrons to account for the charge. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course CHM 111 taught by Professor Jamesadams during the Spring '08 term at Greenville Technical College.

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CHAPTER 07&08 - CHAPTER 7: Chemical Bonding Chapter Goals...

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