MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS E VIRUS GENOTYPES IN BLOOD DONORS IN PESHAWAR, KPK (1).docx

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MOLECULAREPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITISE E VIRUS GENOTYPES IN BLOOD DONORS IN PESHAWAR,KPKBlood transfusion is a lifesaving procedure from restoring blood cells or plasma lost via severebleeding, e.g. during surgery when blood loss happens(Purdy and Khudyakov, 2011). It has alsobeen used in anaemic patients as a crucial part of treatment. A strong superintendence should beimplemented to prevent transmission of the microorganism from donor torecipient duringtransfusion(Tai et al., 2009). All the blood donors around the world are tested for antibodiesagainst five microorganisms, immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human hepatitis C virus (HCV),human hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), syphilis, and malaria parasite(Kamar et al., 2014).Additionally, many other viruses can be acquired following transfusion but are uncommon.Numerous viruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV),and rabies virus, as well as bacteria, have been identified with such a relatively low hazard(Kao,2011). Recent studies revealed that in November 2018, the United States implemented nationalnucleic acid testing (NAT) of all blood products for hepatitis E virus (H EV), which had alreadybeen implemented in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Japan(Kao,2011). Portuguese, Italian, French, Greek, and Spanish blood authorities are now looking toimplement similar testing.(Tai et al., 2009).Hepatitis E virus (HEV), which is estimated to infect 2.3 billion people worldwide in both urbanand rural areas, is emerging as a significant international public health epidemic, causing acuteviral hepatitis(Kao, 2011). World Health Organization (WHO) predicts 20 million infections in ayear with more than 3 million diagnosed cases and 56,600 deaths a year worldwide.(Abe et al.,2004). Although most HEV infections are asymptomatic, clinical examination of acute andchronic HEV cases reveals that mild infections can progress to fulminant liver failure. Moreover,aforementioned chronic HEV with HEV-3 protracted (HEV) viremia come about (occur) inorgan transplant recipients(Tibayrenc and Ayala, 2012).The International Committee Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) divides the Hepeviridae family into 2genera, which were mentioned here "Orthohepevirus A and Piscihepevirus”(Colson et al., 2012).Orderly is made up of eight genotypes, ranging from HEV 1 to HEV 8. (Mohebbi et al., 2008).The first two genotypes, HEV 1 and HEV 2, were largely human viruses, whereas the third andfourth genotypes, HEV 3 and HEV 4, were found in animal-like pigs and humans, and HEV 5
and HEV 6 were found in wild boar in Japan. Finally, HEV 7 was detected in a dromedary camel(Tai et al., 2009, Colson et al., 2012Furthermore, a study specifies its pandemic of fourgenotypes with country promise and ingestion sources; at first, HEV 1 and HEV 2 areautochthonous in Asia and Africa. The most common route of infection is by contaminated water,and HEV 3 to HEV 7 are zoonotic viruses that can be transmitted to humans through the eatingof improperly cooked food or firsthand contact with pigs (Aggarwal, 2013, Colson et al., 2012).

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Hepatitis A, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis E

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