ANTH 3004 Midterm Notes - 3004 Midterm Notes MODELS OF THE...

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3004 Midterm Notes MODELS OF THE SETTLEMENT 9-15 1. Summary a. Results of continued excavation at biblical conquest 2. Peaceful immigration model a. Summary a.i. Num-josh is highly idealized, folkloristic, legendary and very much the product of late biblical writers a.ii. Judges picture is closer to the historical truth 3. Argument: territorial history of Palestine during the LB a. Known from Amarna Letters and conquest lists of Thutmose III b. Concentration of powerful Canaanite cities in the coastal plain, Jezreel Valley, and east-west stretch land from Jerusalem to the coast c. Sparse population in hill country of Judah, Ephraim, Manasseh, and Galilee d. Hill country = easiest area for new-comers 4. Criticisms by Dever: a. Material culture of new settlements does not indicate nomadic origins of the settlers b. There is significant continuity between material culture of new settlements and Late Bronze Canaanite pottery; especially with regard to pottery forms…ergo the settlers had once been Canaanites… 5. Finkelstein: a. What is the origin of the Israelites who settled in the hill country of Palestine in the beginning of the Iron Age. b. Indigenous to Palestine before the settlement. Had been nomads in the hill country during the Late Bronze Age. In the land as nomads. c. Conclusion: the Israelites were indigenous to Palestine. Before their settlement, had been nomads/pastoralists in the hill country during the LB Age.
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d. 3 Assumptions: d.i. New Iron I settlements in hill country are Israelite. d.ii. Society in late LB society: d.ii.1. Nothing in archaeological fact that would suggest this dimorphic society. d.iii. Biblical account of the Israelite settlement d.iii.1. Biblical account is from late writers, therefore bib account is not reliable. Put it aside…. 6. Main Arguments and Evidence a. Artifactual evidence from the pastoralist background of the Iron I settlers a.i. Iron I settlements usually have grain silos. This reflects nomadic settlers. Dense country side where serial crop would have been grown… assumption: nomads would have not been good at growing so they settle in places where crops are easy to grow, like grain, not olives which are hard! Booh! b. Material culture of iron I hill-country sites and material culture of LB Canaanite urban centers: differences and continuity. Inferences? b.i. Many big differences. Late Canaanite cities are impressive settlements. Some continuity in pottery…some sort of relationship between city folk and pastoralists who eventually settled. c. Settlement patters in the hill country during theh MB IIB, LB, and Iron I. c.i. MB – big sedentary pop. LB – population suddenly drops by half. Finkel means urban population, the sedentary dwellers who leave artifacts. Then in iron I pop picks back up again.
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