GeoSci Study Guide
Lec. 1 & 2
Stabilization Triangle
In the past 60 years the amount of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere increased about
8GtC/y
7GtC/y of carbon will be released into the atmosphere according to the
“Businessas
Usual”
A “
Wedge”
is a strategy to reduce carbon emissions that grows in 50 years from zero to
1.0 GtC/y.
A single wedge represents 25GtC.
ppm?
Wedges (to help reduce carbon emission):
1. Renewable Electricity and fuels
2. Energy Efficiency and Conservation
3. Fuel Switch
4. Nuclear Fission
5. Forests and Soils
6. CO2 capture and storage
Energy
is the capacity or ability to do work; Translation or Motion, force acting over
some distance
Kinetic Energy
(1/2mv^2)* Motion
Potential Energy
(mGh)* Position

Units of measurement for energy:
joules or (Kilograms)(m/sec^2)(m)
M= Mass (kg)
v= Velocity (meters/sec);
G=Gravitational acceleration (9.8 meters/
sec^2); h=height (meters)
Thermal Energy
Calorie
heat energy required to raise temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree
Celsius. (Calorie=4.185 joules)
Chemical Energy
(kcal/mole)
(kj/mole)
Nuclear Reactions
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View Full DocumentE=mc^2 (c is speed of light)
 electron volt (eV)= 1.6 x 10^19 joules
Units g (m/sec)^2=g x m/s^2 x m= joule
Laws of Thermodynamics:
Conservation of Energy
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 Winter '08
 RodEwing
 Energy, Hubbert peak theory, distance Kinetic Energy, Motion Potential Energy, Energy Calorie heat

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