Unit2Skeletal.docx - 1 Classify bones according to their...

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1. Classify bones according to their shapes. Provide examples of each bone shape and a location where found in the body. There is flat, irregular, sesamoid, long, and short bones. The tibia is a long bone located in the lower leg. Carpals are short bones located in the wrist. The cranial bones are flat bones located in the head. Vertebrae are irregular bones located in the spine. The patellae is a sesamoid bone also known as the knee cap and its located in the leg. 2. Identify the major types of bone markings, and provide a function for each type. The major types of bone markings are articulations, projections, and holes. An articulation is where two bone surfaces come together conforming to one another. One bone may be rounded and the other a cupped to facilitate the function of articulation. A projection is an area of the bone that projects higher than the surface of the bone. Projections are attachment points for tendons and ligaments. A hole is an opening or groove in the bone. These openings allow blood vessels and nerves to enter the bone. 3. Identify the anatomical parts of a typical long bone, and describe its internal structures, providing functions for each structure. Between the proximal and distal ends of a long bone runs a tubular shaft called the diaphysis that has a hollow region called a medullary cavity that houses yellow marrow. The wall of the diaphysis is composed of hard and dense compact bone. The wide ends of the bone are called epiphyses. They are filled with spongy bone. The space inside the spongy bone is filled with red marrow. The epiphyses meet the diaphysis at the metaphysis which contains the epiphyses plate which is a layer of hyaline cartilage in a growing bone. The cartilage is replaced by osseous tissue when the bone stops growing and the epiphyses place becomes the epiphyseal line. Endosteum is a delicate membrane that lines the medullary cavity. The endosteum is where bone growth, repair, and remodeling take place. The outer surface of the bone is covered by periosteum which is a fibrous membrane. The periosteum is home to blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that nourish compact bone. It is also where tendons and ligaments attach to the bone. Periosteum covers the entire outer surface of the bone except where the epiphyses meet other bones, forming joints. That area is instead covered by articular cartilage which is a thin layer of cartilage that reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber.

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