Cathode Ray Oscilloscopes - MEASUREMENTS INSTRUMENTATION...

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BY Achu G.B 08M101 Muralidhar P 08M127 Ramprasad V 08M132 Ronny Alex Jacob 08M135 Agasthya T 08M153 Rupak U 08M155 MEASUREMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SEMINAR
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CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPES
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INTRODUCTION Cathode-ray oscilloscope is an electronic-display device containing a cathode-ray tube (CRT) that generates an electron beam that is used to produce visible patterns, or graphs, on a phosphorescent screen. The graphs plot the relationships between two or more variables, with the horizontal axis normally being a function of time and the vertical axis usually a function of the voltage generated by the input signal to the oscilloscope. Because almost any physical phenomenon can be converted into a corresponding electric voltage through the use of a transducer, the oscilloscope is a versatile tool in all forms of physical investigation. The German physicist Ferdinand Braun developed the first cathode-ray oscilloscope in 1897.
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Why CROs ? Speed of response is the cathode- ray oscilloscope’s chief advantage over other plotting devices. General-purpose oscilloscopes have plotting frequencies of up to 100 megahertz (MHz). Response times as rapid as 2,000 MHz are achievable with special-purpose high-speed CROs. It is sometimes necessary or desirable to plot more than one waveform at the same time on the screen of an oscilloscope. With the use of a variety of techniques, four or more plots can be simultaneously shown. With a dual-trace amplifier and a single electron gun, two signals may be shown at what appears to be the same time. Actually, the amplifier electronically switches rapidly between the two observed signals. In a split- beam CRT the electron beam from a single gun is split, with the two parts receiving different vertical deflections. A dual-gun CRT uses two separate electron guns, each having its own focus and brightness controls. By combining two dual-trace amplifiers with a dual-gun CRT, four individual plots can be obtained.
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History Of Cathode Ray Application Cathode rays exist in the form of streams of high speed electrons in vacuum tubes. The invention of the CRT paved the way for the invention of television. The CRT was widely used in computer monitors prior to the advent of flat screens. The electron gun consists of a heated filament, cathode, anode and grid. The CRT needs time to "warm up". In older tubes, this could take several seconds. The grid controls the numbers of electrons allowed to hit the screen.The anode accelerates and focusses the electrons. Colour TV's used 3 electron guns.
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GENERAL EXTERNAL APPEARANCE The basic oscilloscope, as shown in the illustration, is typically divided into four sections: the display, vertical controls, horizontal controls and trigger controls.
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  • Fall '14
  • Oscilloscope, Cathode Ray Tube, electron beam, sweep

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