Exam 3 Biology Review Sheet

Exam 3 Biology Review Sheet - Exam 3 March 24 at 6 pm and...

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Exam 3 March 24 th at 6 pm and will be in room CHEM 1640 Classical Taxonomy: - The describing and naming of species and higher taxonomic groups - Still in use today - Binomial nomenclature system of two part names Classification - a way of organizing the diversity of living organisms Phylogenetic Systematics- a classification based on evolutionary relationships which demonstrates the sequence of speciation events Hierarchical Classification- Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species D, K, P, C, O, F, G, S Modern Sytematists: - Attempt to classify species & infer evolutionary relationships among species -seeks to infer evolutionary relationships -phylogenies are reconstructed using data from fossils, morphology, DNA sequence data, chromosomal arrangements, development, and behavior. Phylogenetics: Ideas behind Phylogenetics: Closely related species share many characteristics while distantly related species share few characteristics. Phylogenetic Tree- a graphical representation of this history, which describes the sequence of speciation events Phylogeny- Hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group History of Phylogenetic Biology -A fusion of systematics with evolutionary biology -a phylogeny represents the branching pattern of species lineages via the process of speciation Ancestral (plesiomorphic) Characteristics- ancient genes controlling key biochemical pathways (DNA replication and protein synthesis) are found in all organisms because they were inherited from a common ancestor. Derived (apomorphic) Characteristics- Subsequent evolutionary innovations are derived characteristics and account for the difference among organisms. Reading Phylogenetic Trees- Population are represented by branches , and nodes show where the ancestral groups split into descendant groups. Adjacent branches are sister taxa (a taxon is any named group of organisms), and a polytomy is a node where more than two descendent groups branch off. Tips are branch endpoints and represent living groups or a group’s end in extinction.
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*Monophyletic group = Clade - A group that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants; Monophyletic groups will be defined by shared derived character(s) (=Synapomorphies) - A derived character is an evolutionary novelty unique to a group *Monophyletic groups -Share homologous characteristics inherited from common ancestor Ex: angiosperms -Evolved from a common ancestor that had a flower (=shared derived trait) Characters may be similar for 2 reasons: Homology- similarity due to inheritance from a common ancestor Analogy- Similarity due to independent (convergent) evolution; similar selections pressures imposed by similar environments lead to similar structures in 2 different, not closely related, evolution lineages. Sorting Homology from Analogy:
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Exam 3 Biology Review Sheet - Exam 3 March 24 at 6 pm and...

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