Introduction to Life on Earth, Chapter 1, 2007

Introduction to Life on Earth, Chapter 1, 2007 - Bi101 for...

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Bi101 for Health Sciences Majors, Fall, 2007 Meeting Times : Tuesday/Thursday, 12:30 PM – 1:45 PM Echlin Center, Room 101 Instructor : Professor Barbara R. Beitch
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About myself– a checkered past (?) From Jersey City to Oak Ridge and beyond IU, Brandeis, Harvard, UVa, Columbia, Yale, and QU Teaching neighborhood kids, earthworms, and box turtles math biology Family– husband/best friend, kids, and grandkids Scuba diving, hiking and the Giant, backpacking, travel, piano, reading off-beat books Age/agism The bad times My teaching philosophy/modus operandi
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Biology: The Study of Life PART I. What constitutes life? What properties characterize living entities?
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Properties of life forms (a) Organizat (b) Reproduction using DNA- encoded (d) Responses to (e) Regulation through (c) Growth and (f) Energy (g) Evolutionary
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(a) Organization and Complexity
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Exploring Levels of Biological Organization 1 The biosphere 2 Ecosystems 3 Communities 4 Populations 5 Organisms (Subsets of species) (Hierarchical Complexity)
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8 Cells 6 Organs and Organ Systems 7 Tissues 10 Molecules 9 Organelles 50 10 1 C Atoms 11 12 Sub-atomic particles 11 11 Atoms 1 Hierarchical Complexity, Continued
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(Hierarchical Complexity, Another Example) From ants to “strings” (with a few quantum leaps)
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Contrasting eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in size and complexity http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/life/animal_cell.jpg http://nai.nasa.gov/library/images/ news_articles/94_1.jpg A generalized eukaryotic cell A generalized prokaryotic cell
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(b) Reproduction using DNA- encoded instructions
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Reproduction at a cellular level: A lung cell from a newt divides into two smaller cells that will grow and divide again 25
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Inherited DNA directs an organism’s growth and development. Sperm Egg Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embyro’s cells, all with identical copies of ofinherited Offspring with traits inherited from both parents Sperm Cell
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DNA: The genetic material Nucleu DN C Nucleotide A C T A T A C C G G T A T A (b) Single strand of DNA. These geometric shapes and letters are simple symbols for the nucleotides in a small section of one chain of a DNA molecule. Genetic information is encoded in specific sequences of the four types of nucleotides (their names are abbreviated here as A, T, C, and G). ( a) DNA double helix. This model shows each atom in a segment of DNA. Made up of two long chains of building blocks called nucleotides, a DNA molecule takes the three-dimensional form of a double helix.
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Before each cell reproduces, Its DNA makes copies of itself. This ensures that the genetic blueprints will remain constant from generation to generation. But sometimes a mistake is made and the new generation gets something a little different. Such an inherited mistake is called a “mutation”.
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Introduction to Life on Earth, Chapter 1, 2007 - Bi101 for...

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