psy Chapter 1 & 2

psy Chapter 1 & 2 - Diana Garcia Chapter 1 The...

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Diana Garcia Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed 0. Prior to 1879 0. Physiology and philosophy scholars studying questions about the mind 1. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) University of Leipzig, Germany 1. Campaigned to make psychology an independent discipline 2. Established the first laboratory for the study of psychology in 1879 2. Psychology was born Wilhelm Wundt’s International Influence 3. Leipzig, the place to study psychology 3. Graduates of Wundt’s program set up new labs across Europe and North America 4. G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924), Johns Hopkins University 4. Established the first psychology laboratory in the U.S. in 1883 5. Between 1883 and 1893, 24 new laboratories in North America The Battle of the “Schools” in the U.S.: Structuralism vs. Functionalism 6. Structuralism – Edward Titchener 5. Analyze consciousness into basic elements 6. Introspection – careful, systematic observations of one’s own conscious experience 7. Functionalism – William James 7. Investigate function of consciousness 8. Led to investigation of mental testing, developmental patterns, and sex differences
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Sigmund Freud and the Concept of the Unconscious Mind 8. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Austria 9. Founded Psychoanalytic school of thought 10. Emphasis on unconscious processes influencing behavior 9. Unconscious = outside awareness Freud’s Ideas: Controversy and Influence 11. Behavior is influenced by the unconscious 12. Unconscious conflict related to sexuality plays a central role in behavior 13. Controversial notions caused debate/resistance 14. Significant influence on the field of psychology Behaviorism: Redefining Psychology 15. John B. Watson (1878-1958): United States 10. Founder of Behaviorism 16. Psychology = scientific study of behavior 17. Behavior = overt or observable responses or activities 11. Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behavior 12. Study of consciousness abandoned John Watson and the Nature-Nurture Debate 18. Nurture, not nature 13. give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief …” 19. Behaviorist school of thought emphasized the environment (nurture)
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20. Focus on stimulus-response relationships 21. S-R psychology Are people free? B.F. Skinner 22. B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): United States 14. Environmental factors determine behavior 15. Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated
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psy Chapter 1 & 2 - Diana Garcia Chapter 1 The...

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