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PracticeTest01

# PracticeTest01 - Geology 108 Earth and Atmosphere Practice...

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Geology 108: Earth and Atmosphere Practice Test #1 For Wednesday Feb. 13 Instructions You will have 50 minutes to complete the test. This practice exam has 24 multiple choice questions, worth 4 points each, and 9 short-answer questions, worth 10 points each, for a maximum pos- sible total score of 186 points. The actual test will be quite similar to this one, but there will be fewer questions on the actual test and there will be some choice in the short answer section. This test has more questions to give you more opportunity to review and evaluate your understanding.

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GEOL 108 Practice Test # 1 Physical Constants Freezing point of water 273 K Boiling point of water 373 K Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5 . 67 × 10 - 8 W / m 2 K 4 Planck constant h = 6 . 63 × 10 - 20 J s Distance from earth to sun 1 AU = 1 . 50 × 10 11 m Distance from Mars to sun 1 . 52 AU Distance from Venus to sun 0 . 72 AU Radius of Earth 6 . 4 × 10 6 m Solar constant (solar flux at Earth) S Earth = 1370 W / m 2 Average albedo of the Earth A = 0 . 3 Average albedo of Venus A = 0 . 8 Average albedo of Mars A = 0 . 2 Greenhouse effect on Venus Δ T g = 510 K Greenhouse effect on Mars Δ T g = 6 K Effective radiating temperature of the Earth T e = 255 K Average surface temperature of the Earth T s = 288 K Atmospheric pressure at sea level P 0 = 1 . 013 bar Dry adiabatic lapse rate 10 C / km Normal tropospheric environmental lapse rate 6 . 5 C / km Average scale height of the atmosphere H 0 = 5 . 3km –2 of 20– Wednesday Feb. 13
GEOL 108 Practice Test # 1 Equations Solar zenith angle zenith angle = latitude - declination (Positive latitude = northern, negative = southern) Solar elevation angle elevation angle = 90 - zenith angle Stefan-Boltzmann equation E = σT 4 Wien’s law λ max = 2898 μ m / K T Effective radiating temperature T e = 4 s 1 - A 4 σ S Greenhouse effect Δ T g = T s - T e Temperature conversion: Kelvin to Celsius T( C ) = T( K ) - 273 Fahrenheit to Celsius T( C ) = T( F ) - 32 1 . 8 Celsius to Fahrenheit T( F ) = 1 . 8 T( C ) + 32 Temperature lapse T = T 0 - lapse rate × height Barometric law P(h) = P 0 × 2 - height /H 0 , where H 0 is the scale height of the atmosphere. Calculating fourth roots The fourth root ( 4 )is the same as the square root of the square root. On your calculator, it may be easier to push the square-root ( ) key twice than to take the fourth root directly. Calculating fourth powers The fourth power is the same as the square of the square. On your calculator, if you have an x 2 key, it may be easier to push x 2 twice than to take the fourth power directly. –3 of 20– Wednesday Feb. 13

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GEOL 108 Practice Test # 1 Saturation specific humidity of water vapor Temp ( C ) Saturation spe- cific humidity ( g / kg ) - 40 0 . 10 - 30 0 . 30 - 20 0 . 75 - 10 2 . 0 0 3 . 5 5 5 . 0 10 7 . 0 15 10 20 14 25 20 30 27 35 35 40 47 –4 of 20– Wednesday Feb. 13
GEOL 108 Practice Test # 1 Atmospheric Pressure versus Altitude 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Altitude (kilometer) Pressure (millibar) Pressure vs. Altitude (Linear scale) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 10 100 1000 Altitude (kilometer) Pressure (millibar) Pressure vs. Altitude (Log Scale) –5 of 20– Wednesday Feb. 13

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GEOL 108 Practice Test # 1 Map of the earth.
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PracticeTest01 - Geology 108 Earth and Atmosphere Practice...

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