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Unformatted text preview: Exam2 Fall07 Real test Key Note: everyone got credit for questions 1,3,7,15,30 and 37. 1. The dictionary is full of definitions for many concepts. How do we know that we do not really represent concepts using such definitions a. because we cannot remember all the definitions in the dictionary b. because some atypical items still can be categorized c. because some items seem like better category members, even if they meet the definition d. because we often fail to recognize the prototype of a category even if we have seen the object many times According to the classical view, every item that meets the definition should be an equally good member of the category. The fact that some members are better members suggests that similarity to a prototype may be important. Answer C was phrased a little funny, which probably accounts for some of the confusion. 2. The sentence, "Man, that was cold,` would be said to differ in ___________, depending on whether it is spoken in reaction to a friend's cruel behavior or an overly airconditioned movie theater. a. b. c. d. speech effect syntax deep structure surface structure 3. Why would a child who used to say "feet" now start saying "foots"? a. She has forgotten the correct linguistic rule. b. She has passed the critical period for learning the past tense. c. She is experiencing confusion while getting from one cognitive stage to another. d. She has acquired a new correct linguistic rule. SEE TOP OF PAGE 322 4. What does the book suggest that we should NOT do with claims of repressed childhood abuse? a. withold judgments until independent evidence is obtained b. beware that events reconstructed years later will be distorted c. use photographs if they are available, as a retrieval cue d. avoid repeated suggestions Photographs are likely to increase false reports. SEE PAGE 274. Page 1 5. Psychologists have so far concluded that there is no absolute critical period after which language cannot be acquired. Which of the following findings supports this conclusion? a. People who overhear a 2nd language in childhood can learn that language more easily than adults. b. Deaf children who are not taught a language invent their own sign language. c. Learning a 2nd language is easier for a 2-year-old than for a 3-year old, but it is also easier for a 13-year-old than a 16-year-old. d. Children acquire better pronunciation than adults when learning a 2nd language. C suggests that although there is an advantage in starting earlier, there is no fixed age limit by which language can no longer be acquired. 6. Your pet squirrel drops the content of her basket on the floor. She is looking for her lucky walnut among all the other nuts. If she is engaged in an attentive visual search, which of the following statements is true: a. How fast she finds the lucky nut depends on bottom-up cues. b. How fast she finds the lucky nut depends on how many nuts are on the floor. c. She cannot find the lucky nut until she has checked every single one of the other nuts. d. She will find the nut because of exogenous attention. Attentive searches are those that require attention, and which are influenced by the number of distractors. 7. How can the representation of a word that has not yet been recognized facilitate our recognition of its individual letters a. because we read words before we read letters. b. because of the word-superiority effect and the fact that it is not observed for nonsense letterstrings. c. because phonemes are shorter than morphemes. d. because guesses at the level of the letter representations may be enough to activate the representation of the word. SEE Figure 8.32 and accompanying text. 8. Which of the following memory problems provides the best example of PROACTIVE interference? a. You cannot remember the phone number of your old cell phone, since the company changed it for a new one. b. An experimenter tells you to remember "HIZNF", but then asks you to count backward by threes from 227. Twenty seconds later you cannot remember HIZNF. c. You have changed your telephone number three times this year. As a result, you keep forgetting your new number. d. You read a story but when you try to tell it you leave out several unimportant details and you distort some others. Page 2 9. Why is vicarious reinforcement more effective than vicarious punishment? a. Because of social pressures not to behave negatively. b. Because vicarious punishment is on a less efficient schedule of reinforcement. c. Because for vicarious punishment to work, you have to identify with a loser. d. Because of several intervening variables in the case of vicarious punishment. SEE PAGE 237. 10. Which is the best statement about studying practices? a. Studying something several times is great, but studying it in different ways is better. b. Asking yourself questions while studying impairs the quality of encoding. c. Memory is reconstructive, so procedural learning is very efficient. d. It is easier to know how well you have learned something if you test yourself right away, before you forget it. 11. What can college do for you? a. increase your digit span b. increase your long term memory for class material c. improve your working memory d. encourage you to use reflective thought This was discussed in class. 12. Maximizing is a strategy similar to _______________ while satisficing is a strategy that is more like _______________. a. a heuristic; an algorithm b. working memory; short term memory c. short term memory; working memory d. an algorithm; a heuristic 13. The case of Little Albert is used to demonstrate __________ of conditioned fear responses. a. the acquisition and extinction b. the acquisition and blocking c. the acquisition and generalization d. blocking and second-order conditioning This is the little boy who Watson conditioned to be afraid of a rabbit and who then generalized to a number of other stimuli, as shown in class in a video. 14. Why, according to your textbook, would Dr. Gauthier replace traditional review sessions with a trial run of a test? a. Because research shows that students do better if they replace some of study time by testing time. b. Because studies have shown that an early test will force students to study earlier. c. To vary the study conditions. d. Because the emotional arousal of the first test has been shown to increase performance on the second test. Page 3 SEE PAGE 262. BOTH A and C were accepted. 15. Which store has the largest capacity in terms of number of items it can hold? a. short term b. phonological loop c. working memory d. sensory Sensory memory, such as iconic memory, has a very large capacity although a very short duration. 16. In the demonstration of how short-term memory fades, meaningless sequences of letters are encoded, and the experimenters also ask subjects to count backwards from a number such as 231. What is the role of counting backwards in this demonstration? a. To prevent subjects from rehearsing the numbers. b. To prevent subjects from rehearsing the letters. c. To prevent subjects from using their iconic memory d. To prevent subjects from using their visuo-spatial sketchpad. 17. Four cards are shown, which show "E", "S", "4" and "3" each on one of their side. To test the hypothesis that "any card that has a vowel on one side has an even number on the other", how many cards do you need to turn? a. b. c. d. 1 3 4 2 PAGE 302. You need to turn the E to see if an even number is there, and also you need to turn the 3, in case there is a vowel behind it, violating the rule. 18. At what age do most children start speaking in two-word phrases? a. b. c. d. 48 months 24 months 18 months 36 months 19. Sam has learned to study regularly, because it makes quizzes less anxiety producing. This is an example of a. negative punishment b. punishment c. negative reinforcement d. positive reinforcement A behavior increases because something negative (anxiety) is taken away. Page 4 20. If you do not present the word pumpkin in a list, but you want people to believe it was presented, what kind of words should you put on the list to have the strongest rate of false recall? a. words that rhyme with pumpkin b. words related the pumpkin and words that rhyme with pumpkin c. words related to pumpkin d. words related to pumpkin but unlikely to cause proactive interference with it 21. Someone tells me that if I say "abracadabra" every morning, I will stay healthy. I say it daily and stay healthy. I conclude that the word kept me healthy. What error of thinking am I making? a. functional fixedness b. availability c. confirmation bias d. representativeness See Concept check #11 on page 310. 22. At a sushi bar, the chef is taking orders from several customers, making the sushi, and remembering what each customer has bought, without taking any notes. Her ability to shift from one task to another is controlled by: a. The central executive part of working memory. b. The episodic buffer which puts all the information together. c. Exogenous attention. d. Procedural memory. 23. Jim has conditioned his roomate to salivate at the sound of his cell phone. Now Jim feels bad and stops offering popcorn every time the phone rings - the roomate stops salivating at the sound of the phone. Why might the roomate salivate the next day when he hears a phone ring on the way to class? a. b. c. d. e. an emotional response spontaneous recovery stimulus generalization discrimination operant conditioning The question here is why a response comes back AFTER HAVING BEEN EXTINGUISHED. This is an example of spontaneous recovery. If the response to the first phone was still present, and we had specified that Jim now also salivates to a different phone that sounds different, then it might have been an example of generalization. 24. What is most likely to be different in a speed-reader vs. a normal readers a. the capacity of short term memory b. the number of characters encoded during a fixation c. the number of characters encoded during a saccade d. the duration of a fixation Page 5 25. Which principle can best explain why many people are more afraid of flying than of driving, even though driving is more dangerous? a. b. c. d. Representativeness heuristic Availability heuristic Confirmation bias Overconfidence 26. Which statement is true regarding memory for traumatic events, such as rape or incest? a. Repression is rare, but dissociation is often observed in cases of sexual abuse. b. People tend to like to talk about traumatic memories, and it tends to increase the vividness of flashbulb memories. c. The stronger the sexual abuse, the more likely people are to remember it. d. Traumatic memories are stored, but they often cannot be retrieved because they are too painful. 27. In the mnemonic method of loci a. you imagine places, then put list items in these imaginary places b. you chunk information into different parts of your short term memory c. you put retreival cues, like post-it notes, in different places d. you come up with words that sound like what you want to remember 28. If you see a strange movie with a plot that is so complex that you can hardly keep track of what is going on. What is likely to happen months later when you retell the story to a friend? a. You will remember the movie using hindsight bias b. You will remember only the start of the movie c. You will remember a more coherent story than the real movie d. You will only remember the parts that were incoherent e. You will remember an even less coherent story than the real movie See page 269 on reconstructing stories -> as time passes, you rely on the gist and on your expectations. 29. What is a mirror neuron? a. neurons that respond only when someone imitates you. b. neurons that respond to self facial movements. c. neurons that mirror each other's responses, to accelerate learning. d. neurons that respond to a movement either performed or observed. 30. Good performance on the Stroop task would depend on a. pre-attentive visual search b. limits of visual short term memory c. exogenous attention d. endogeneous attention e. large capacity of long term memory Page 6 31. In class, we did an example to demonstrate how likely you may be to ignore the base-rate information in favor of representative information. Then, we did a second problem, and a lot of the students still made the same mistake. What is the most likely reason? a. b. c. d. It was a case of the availability of the information It is easy to miss the similarity between two problems and fail to generalize Limitations in short-term memory We cannot compute base-rates correctly See page 302 32. When an individual develops tolerance to the effects of drug injection, what is the conditioned response? a. Overdose. b. The injection. c. Changes in hormone secretion and heart rate. d. Seeking the drug. 33. The only person Craig has ever met from New Zealand strikes him as quite friendly and funny. When asked what he would expect to find if he went to New Zealand, Craig says that he would expect the people to be quite friendly and funny. His judgment seems to have been made using a. b. c. d. e. an algorithm that is imperfect the representativeness heuristic functional fixedness the simulation fallacy the availability heuristic The best answer in my mind is E, because it is easy for Craig to think of examples when kiwis were friendly. But I guess you might say that he is ignoring base rate for how likely people are to be friendly (quite high) and just thinking that kiwis fit the definition of friendly really really well (based on his experience). Both B and E were accepted, but I cannot imagine a rationale for picking the other answers. 34. Which of the following 4 is the odd-one out? a. Alzheimer's disease patient b. Korsakoff disease patient c. Someone with childhood amnesia d. A patient with damage to the hippocampus Page 7 35. In the Stroop demonstration in the book, you were asked to point to color patches that matched the color of the ink of color words. What happens under such conditions: a. it is quite difficult to ignore the words and many mistakes are made b. it is fairly easy to ignore the words c. surprisingly, you cannot see the colors d. you make few mistakes but woudl be extremely slow SEE TRY IT YOURSELF ON PAGE 290 36. If I briefly flash a complex picture of a scene with dozens of people in it and ask you to name as many as you can, why will you do worse if I follow the scene immediately with the image of a scrambled mess of lines. a. Because the lines will reduce retrieval cues. b. Because the lines will capture attention. c. Because the lines will replace the scene in short term memory. d. Because the lines will replace the scene in iconic memory. 37. In a Posner cueing experiment, subjects stare at the fixation cross while the left or right boxes are cued using a siren sound (which subjects are told means right) or a loud boom (which subjects are told means left). In this situation, what is true? a. Exogenous attention will facilitate valid trials. b. Subjects will use endogenous attention. c. Valid trials will be faster than neutral trials, but neutral and invalid trials will be the same. d. Attention cannot be used under such conditions. The situation here is similar to when the boxes are cued with arrows. Attention needs to be controlled "top-down" so that the instruction to attend left or right is actually executed. 38. One approach to explaining concepts assumes that each category member is equally representative of the category. This is the: a. b. c. d. typicality theory classical view prototype view graded structure view 39. Many people check their emails compulsively, because they have been reinforced (i.e., rewarded with new messages) on a ______________ schedule. a. b. c. d. fixed interval variable interval fixed ratio variable ratio You are reinforced by emails that appear once in a while, (not once every time you check -> that is, even if you check 30 times in 5 min, it does not make it more likely that new Page 8 emails appear). 40. Bill is 34 years old. He is intelligent, but unimaginative, compulsive and generally lifeless. In school, he was strong in mathematics but weak in social studies and humanities. Regarding these two statements: A. Bill is an accountant who plays jazz for a hobby, or B. Bill plays jazz for a hobby? a. b. c. d. A and B are equally unlikely A is more likely than B A is less likely than B A and B have the same probability Please do NOT argue that all accountants play jazz, they don't. 41. In the modal model of memory, once a piece of information is stored into short-term memory (STM), three things can logically happen to the information. Choose below which one is NOT one of the 3 things you can do with the information? a. b. c. d. transfer it from STM to long term memory move it from STM to working memory keep it in STM using rehearsal forget about it Working memory is a concept that replaced STM in theories of memory. Therefore, no one model includes both STM and Working Memory. 42. I've stopped sleeping on the left side of the bed because when I do, the pillow keeps falling off on the floor. This is an example of: a. b. c. d. positive reinforcement negative punishment negative reinforcement classical conditioning This is punishment because the probability of a behavior is reduced. It is negative because it happens through taking something away (the pillow). 43. Studying words by coming up with rhyming words is not as good as coming up with synonyms. However, if you did, you may do better with rhyming cues. This is an example of a. intentional learning b. transfer-appropriate processing c. encoding specificity d. incidental learning Page 9 44. If you strongly associate BEAR with HONEY, hearing the word BEAR will temporarily increase your speed and accuracy of reading the word HONEY. This is evidence in favor or: a. spreading of activation b. the von Restorff effect c. prototypes d. transfer appropriate processing e. the classical view of conceptual processing 45. Name the kids who were in your 6th grade class. What kind of memory test is that? a. Cued recall b. Recognition c. Free recall d. Implicit memory test 46. Why is the headline "Lack of Brains Hinders Research" ambiguous? a. b. c. d. because it has two possible deep structures. because the syntax is wrong. because of phonology. because it has two possible surface structures. Brains here has two possible meanings: brains of the scientists, or brains that the scientists might study. 47. What kind of conditioning leads to the strongest conditioned response? a. simultaneous CS and UCS b. long delay between CS and UCS c. CS immediately followed by UCS d. UCS followed by CS with short delay 48. It is springtime and the pollen from flowers causes you to sneeze. Soon you are sneezing every time you see a flower. What is the pollen in this example? a. b. c. d. Unconditioned response Conditioned response Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus 49. The zebra swallowtail is the official butterfly of the state of Tennessee. To recognize it among other kinds of butterflies requires: a. b. c. d. spreading activation subordinate level categorization superordinate categorization basic level categorization 50. What would anxiety be to a methodological behaviorist? Page 10 a. b. c. d. An intervening variable. An operation. Something not worth studying. An observable response. Please come to see me at office hours or by appointment if you want to try to make some changes before the final. FIRST, please look at each question you missed, look up the material that's relevant in the book, and ask yourself: 1- Do I understand what the correct answer is now? 2- Did I really understand it at any point before the test? 3- Did I misunderstand or over-think the question? Question # Understand now? Understood before? Confusion during test? Page 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Guliver during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.
- Spring '08