1009GBS - Module 1.docx - 1009GBS: Grand Challenges for...

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1009GBS: Grand Challenges for BusinessModule 1: Introduction to Grand ChallengesIntroductionAll individuals, communities, business, and governments, implement strategies for reducingor removing obstacles that prevent them from achieving strategic goals. Grand challengesexist, as there are at times no simple solution, necessitating often lengthy, costly and acomplicated balance between various stakeholders.This module examines organisational challenges from multiple perspectives and applies arange of methods in understanding and solving problems. Analysis of the macro-environmental factors that can affect business will be conducted through various models.These models will be used to examine issues through a range of societal lenses, including theperspective of First Peoples.Learning OutcomesIdentify what Grand Challenges are.Critically discuss what the term ‘problem-solving’ means.Characterise problems occurring at different societal levels and across contexts.Topic 1: What is a problem?A problem can be articulated as a difficulty, challenge, glitch, hurdle or as a deviation fromnormal expectations. At is essence, a problem refers to a situation, person, or thing, thatrequires attention and needs to be dealt with or solved (Cambridge English Dictionary, 2020).How we categorise problems can also come down to our individual experiences. A problemcreates a discrepancy between the desired and actual outcomes. Another characteristic or atrue problem is that it generally doesnot have an immediate obvious resolution(Nickles,1981). Often the personality and perception of individuals, or the culture of a business, candetermine whether a classically defined problem is subsequently viewed as an opportunity.What is a Grand Challenge?A grand challenge is often referred to as a ‘wicked problem’. It may be unclear how it shouldbe approached for four reasons:1.Incomplete or contradictory knowledge,2.The number of people and opinions involved,3.The large economic burden and,4.The interconnected nature of these problems with other problems (Kolko, 2020).A wicked problem has innumerable causes, is tough to describe, doesn’t have one rightanswer and is never solved definitely. They are the opposite of ‘hard but ordinary problems’,which people can solve in a finite time period by applying standard techniques (Camillus,2008). It is a problem that is difficult to solve primarily because there is alack of precedentfor a solution. The nature of the problem is often one which exists on a macro level andtherefore has global effects on governments, organisations and consumers.The ‘solutions’ to wicked problems depend on how the problem is framed (defined), which inturn is influenced by the different perspectives, world views and priorities of stakeholders(Rittel & Webber, 1973).
‘Wicked Problems’These are highly complex problems. They are unstructured, open-ended, multi-dimensional,systemic, and have no known solution. Examples include inequality, terrorism, environmental

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Term
Two
Professor
A/Prof Ki-Hoon Lee
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